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- quantity that has both magnitude and direction
- (examples- force, velocity, acceleration)
Speed and direction something is going (velocity is a vector)
measure of an object’s inertia (f=ma)
Newton's Laws of Motion
1. Law of Inertia
3. For every action there is an equal but opposite reaction.
Law of Inertia
- If there is no net force acting on an object then the object will maintain
- a constant velocity. If that velocity is zero, then the object remains
- at rest. If the velocity is x the object will remain moving at x until a force
- is applied to change it!
F = ma
- Force is the interaction (contact or at a distance) between objects, such as push,
- pull, etc.
- Acceleration is a change in speed or direction
- Unbalanced forces cause objects to accelerate
- Acceleration is directly proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass.
For every action there is an equal but opposite reaction.
- In every interaction, there is a pair of forces acting on the two interacting objects.
- The size of the forces on the first object equals the size ofthe force on the second object.
- The direction of the force on the first objectis opposite to the direction of the force on the second object.
- Forces always come in pairs - equal and opposite action-reaction force pairs.
- Formed by the accumulation of sediments
- Usually as layers at the bottom of lakes and oceans.
- This sediment can include minerals, small pieces of plants and other organic matter.
- Sedimentary rocks forms layers called strata, which can often be seen in exposed cliffs.
- Examples: Sandstone; Mudstone
- The total energy of molecular motion in a substance.
- Heat energy depends on the speed of the particles, the number of particles and the type of particles in an object.
Rock composition and
- The Rock Cycle:Metamorphic rock -> melts -> igneous rock -> erosion, weathering, deposition -> sedimentary rock -> burial, heat, pressure
How fast something is going (s=d/t)
The ability to do work; an exertion of power
Force that pulls objects to the ground
- Places where plates are coming apart
- When Earth's brittle surface layer (the lithosphere) is pulled apart, it typically breaks along parallel faults that tilt slightly outward from each other.
- As the plates separate along the boundary, the block between the faults cracks and drops down into the soft, plastic interior (the asthenosphere).
- The sinking of the block forms a central valley called a rift.
- Magma (liquid rock) seeps upward to fill the cracks.
- In this way, newcrust is formed along the boundary.
- Earthquakes occur along the faults, and volcanoes form where the magma reaches the surface.
- Where a divergent boundary crosses the land, the rift valleys, which form are typically 30 to 50 kilometers wide.
- Where a divergent boundary crosses the ocean floor, the rift valley is much narrower, only a kilometer or less across, and it runs along the top of a mid-oceanic ridge. Oceanic ridges rise a kilometer or so above the ocean floor and form a global network tens of thousands of miles long.
- Plate separation is a slow process.
- Volcanic form,created primarily from particle of congealed lava ejected from a single vent.
- As lava is pushed into the air, it breaks into small fragments, or cinders, around the vent.
- These small volcanoes are almost entirely made up of pyroclastic deposits.
- Common in western North America.
- Places where plates slide past each other
- Since the plates on either side of a transform boundary are merely sliding past each other and not tearing or crunching each other, transform boundaries lack the spectacular features found at convergent and divergent boundaries.
- Instead, transform boundaries are marked in some places by linear valleys along the boundary where rock has been ground up by the sliding. In other places, transform boundaries are marked by features like stream beds that have been split in half and the two halves have moved in opposite directions.
- Their sliding motion causes lots of earthquakes.
- Example: San Andres Fault
- Transformation of other rock types.
- The original rock is subjected to heat(temperatures greater than 150 to 200 °C) and pressure (1500 bars), causing profound physical and/or chemical change.
- The protolithic may be sedimentary rock, igneous rock or another older metamorphic rock.
- Make up a large part of Earth’s crust
- A measure of the average energy of molecular motion in a substance.
- Temperature does not depend on the size or type of object.
- Momentum describes how strong a moving thing is.
- Things that aren't moving have no momentum.
- Moving things have less momentum if they are light or moving slowly, and more momentum if they are heavy or moving fast.
The energy an object or group of objects has by virtue of the object’s shape or the relative positions of the objects in the group.
- The effort exerted over a distance
- WORK is directional, parallel to direction of force
- When WORK is done there is a change in energy
- Exertion or the use of exertion against a person or thing that resists; coercion a dynamic influence that changes a body from a state of rest to one of motion or changes its rate of motion.
- The magnitude of the force is equal to the product of the mass of the body and its acceleration
A structure of concrete, lead, etc, placed around a nuclear reactor or other source of radiation in order to prevent the escape of radiation
- The rate at which you do work
- P = w/t
- Measured in watts
Force between two objects when they rub together
- A tectonic boundary where two plates are moving toward each other.
- If the two plates are of equal density, they usually push up against each other, forming a mountain chain.
- If they are of unequal density, one plate usually sinks beneath the other in a subduction zone.
- The theory states that Earth's outermost layer, the lithosphere, is broken into 7 large, rigid pieces called plates:
- the African,North American, South American, Eurasian, Australian, Antarctic, and Pacific plates.
- Several minor plates also exist, including the Arabian, Nazca, and Philippines plates.·
- The plates are all moving in different directions and at different speeds (from 2 cm to 10 cm per year--about the speed at which your fingernails grow) in relationship to each other.
- Formed when magma cools and solidifies, it may do this above or below the Earth's surface.
- Magma can be forced into rocks, blown out in volcanic explosions or forced to the surface as lava.
- The atoms and molecules of melted minerals are what make up magma.
- These atoms and molecule rearrange themselves into mineral grains as the magma cools,forming rock as the mineral grains grow together.
- There are over 700 different types of igneous rocks.
- Examples of igneous rocks include basalt, granite, pumice, obsidian, tuff, diorite, gabbro and and esite.
- Philippine plate
- Pacific plate
- Indian Australian plate
- Eurasian plate
- African plate
- Scotia Plate
- Antarctica plate
- South American plate
- Nazca plate
- Caribbean plate
- Juan de Fuca plate
- North American plate
- Cocos plate
- Arabian plate
- The energy of a body or a system with respect to the motion of the body or of the particles in the system
- MOVING ENERGY
Any change in motion- could be direction or speed; caused by net forces (acceleration is a vector)
- The top layer of the Earth
- The thinnest of all the layers
- Most of the crust cannot be seen. Composition: Soil, Rock (Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic), Minerals
- The thickness varies.
- Oceanic crust – under the surface of the ocean and made up of basalt
- Continental crust – can be found under the continents and made up of granite.
- Makes up about 80% of the volume of the Earth and about 68% of the Earth’s mass.
- It begins at a region about 200 kilometers below the surface of the Earth and extends down to 3,000 kilometers.
- Composition: Silicon, oxygen, iron,and magnesium.
- Flows like liquid – The temperature and pressure allow for it to flow slowly.
- Composition: Iron and nickel (mostly nickel).
- Scientists theorize this part of the core is liquid.
- The outer core is about 2200 kilometers thick.
- Temperature:3,800 degrees Celsius.
- Composition: Iron and nickel
- Temperature: 5,000 degrees Celsius
- Under these circumstances, iron and nickel would normally melt, but it is under so much pressure, the particles are pushed together to form a solid.
- May explain the existence of magnetic fields around Earth.
- The inner core has a diameter of about 2400 kilometers.
- A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic, solid substance with a specific composition and arrangement of atoms.
- MOST minerals are composed of: Silicon, Oxygen, Aluminum, Iron, Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium
- The elements of Earth’s crust control the type and number of minerals on our planet.
- Divided into seven major groups:
- Native elements
- Silicates – Most abundant mineral group - SiO4
- Carbonates – have the carbonate ion (CO3) bound with a cation.
- Halides – incorporates gaseous elements with other elements
- Oxides – when metallic elements are combined with oxygen ions
- Sulfides – Formed when sulfur bonds to one or more metallic elements (Ex: Fools gold - Pyriteo)
- Sulfates – Minerals composed of a sulfate ion (SO4) combined with other elements.
- Physical properties:
- Crystal habit – the shape of a mineral
- Hardness – some minerals are more difficult to scratch or break than others, giving them a physical property of hardness (Ex: Diamond)
- Cleavage– the mineral’s internal arrangement of atoms, which causes a mineral to break in a specific direction along smooth planes
- Luster– the way a surface reflects light.
- Volcanoes that consist of a combination of pyroclastic materials and lava.
- These volcanoes have very steep flanks and viscous lavas that erupted violently.
- Have one central vent or a clustered group of vents.
- Some of the world’s most scenic mountains are composite volcanoes.
- Unique features
- 16% of the Earth’s surface
- Coldest, harshest environments
- Permafrost – Frozen layer of subsoil
- Rains 6-10 inches a year– evaporates slowly
- A LOT of wind
- Temperature: 30 degrees Fahrenheit in the winter; 37-54 in the summer
- Two types:
- Arctic – growing season lasts 50-60 days· Alpine – growing season lasts 180 days
- Fauna– 48
- Arctic fox
- Polar bear
- Arctic wolves Snowy owls Arctic hares
- Flora– 1700
- Low lying flora
- Cushion plants
- Unique features:
- 1/5 of the Earth
- Created by mountain ranges
- Only 20% is sand.
- Hot and dry
- Semi Arid
- Coastal Cold
- High mineral count
- Little organic matter
- Deep gorges
- Buttes – mountains with flat tops
- Cliff – steep rock face
- Hoodoo – bizarre shaped column or pillar
- Small nocturnal animals
- Very few animals
- Small shrubs, trees, and cacti
- Shallow roots
- Little or no leaves
- Unique features:
- West Coastal region
- No mountains, but there are small canyons
- Gets more rain than deserts, but less than forests
- Definite wet and dry seasons
- Depends on the region
- Short trees (not enoughrain to support tall trees)§ Plants have fireresistant qualities· Rosemary· Oregano· Thyme
- Unique features:
- Found everywhere
- Flowing – not stagnant
- Flows from high to low
Lakes and Ponds
- Unique Features:
- Vary in size and some are seasonal.
- Found all over the world.
- Made up of three sections:the littoral zone, the limnetic zone, and the profundal zone.
- Flora: algae, cattails, duckweed,
- and water lilies.
Fauna: Alligators, Bass, Dragonflies, Mallard Ducks
- Unique Features:
- Partly enclosed brackish water where the river meets the ocean.
- Affected by tide and wind
- Nurseries to fish and shellfish
- Act like huge sponges
Flora: Mangrove, woodland, oak, green algae
Fauna: otters, seals, pelicans, manatee, sea lions, blue crabs, dolphins, bald eagle
- Unique features:
- Regulates Earth temperature
- forests occupy approximately one-third of Earth's land area, account for over two-thirds of the leaf area of land plants, and contain about 70% of carbon present in living things.
- Flora is highly diverse: one square kilometer may contain as many as
- 100 different tree species. Trees are 25-35 m tall, with buttressed
- trunks and shallow roots, mostly evergreen, with large dark green
- leaves. Plants such as orchids, bromeliads, vines (lianas), ferns,
- mosses, and palms are present in tropical forests.
- Fauna include numerous birds, bats, small mammals, and insects.
- Flora is characterized by 3-4 tree species per square kilometer.
- Trees are distinguished by broad leaves that are lost annually and
- include such species as oak, hickory, beech, hemlock, maple, basswood,
- cottonwood, elm, willow, and spring-flowering herbs.
- Fauna is represented by squirrels, rabbits, skunks, birds, deer, mountain lion, bobcat, timber wolf, fox, and black bear.
- Flora consist mostly of cold-tolerant evergreen conifers with needle-like leaves, such as pine, fir, and spruce.
- Fauna include woodpeckers, hawks, moose, bear, weasel, lynx, fox, wolf, deer, hares, chipmunks, shrews, and bats.
- Unique features:
- 70% of the Earth's surface
- Largest Biome
- Different everywhere
- Zones:Intertidal (where ocean meets the shore), open ocean, benthic (the floor of the ocean)
Flora: Sea weed
Fauna: Whales, sharks, fish
- Unique features:
- Transitional – found between deserts and forests
- Soils are deep and fertile – agriculturally useful
- Tall/ tropical – warm, humid and very wet
- Short/ Temperate – Dry with hotter summers
Flora: Sunflower, Clover, Goldenrods, Crazyweed, willows, oaks, and cottonwoods
- Any form of energy can be transformed into another form. The process of energy
- transformation is also known as energy conversion.
Energy doesn't disappear - just changes the forms.
Energy transformation is the process of changing energy from one form to another. This process is happening all the time.
Law of conservation of energy states that energy can change form, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
- Kinetic and Potential energy are important for
- the transformations.