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Often preceded by an aura caused by vasoconstriction
Seen more often in women
Usually begins at ages 10 and 30
Remissions often occur after age of 50 suggesting a hormonal cause
Definite familial component
Unilateral or bilateral
Frequently nausea or vomiting
Headache lasts from hours to one or more days.
Physical and neurological findings between attacks are unremarkable -
during attacks there are transient neurological signs.
- Cluster Headaches
- Occur more frequently in men
- Often abrupt onset of severe pain lasting one or two hours
- Often wake patient at night
- Occur typically in clusters of days to weeks and then may not be
- experienced again for months or years
- They are usually unilateral with associated histaminic symptoms of
- lacrimation, blocked nose, ptosis (droopy eyelids) & flushed cheeks
- Remissions occur spontaneously lasting for years or indefinitely
- In general migraine and cluster headaches are chronic conditions which are
- not cured by conventional treatment
- Although they are both benign, the pain can be debilitating
- Conventional treatment may include ergotamine prophylaxis and narcotic
Typically throbbing and located around occipital area of vortex
Often history of renal or cardiovascular disease
Generally hypertension headache is associated with advance hypertensive
disease and attacks of potentially serious hypertension.
- Herbal Treatment
- Feverfew - for migraines (especially if better with warm
- Long therm treatment is necessary
- can be up to six months before effects are noticed
bitter, sedative, hypnotic, analgesic, cardioprotective, antiarrythmic
Pain, insomnia, cardiac arrythmia, myocardial ischemia, contraindicated in
Herbal medicine provides two
unique approaches to the
treatment of skin
1. Treating by external applications
2. Treating skin disorders as
manifestations of internal disease
- Herpes simplex 1
- Cold sores are painful fluid-filled
- blisters that form on the borders
- of the lips caused by a herpes
- virus, most often the herpes
- simplex 1 virus.
- The blisters, which are
- contagious, later break, ooze,
- and crust over before healing.
- Recurrences are common and
- can be triggered by
- Sun Exposure
Lemon balm has antiviral properties. A cream containing an extract of
lemon balm has been shown in double-blind trials to speed the healing of
The proanthocyanadins in Witch hazel have been shown to exert
significant antiviral activity against herpes simplex 1 in the test tube.
- Licorice extracts containing glycyrrhizin or glycyrrhetinic acid
- should be used, as these are the constituents in licorice most
- likely to provide activity against the herpes simplex virus.
Herpes simplex 2
Genital herpes is a
by fluid filled blisters or
red bumps in the
Genital herpes is caused by either of two types of the herpes
- simplex virus (HSV). There is no known cure for herpes.
- Both conventional and alternative treatments only help in
- reducing the symptoms and frequency of outbreaks.
- Stress plays a major role in the recurrence of genital herpes
- One preliminary study found that persistent stress (stress
- lasting more than seven days) increased the recurrence rate
- by about 25%
While the use of topical licorice preparations to prevent or
treat genital herpes has not been studied, some practitioners
recommend applying creams or gels containing licorice three
to four times a day.
A double-blind trial found that topical application of a cream
containing a highly concentrated extract of Melissa officinalis
four to five times a day helped heal oral and genital herpes
sores faster than use of a placebo.
Aloe vera may also benefit those with genital herpes.
- A double-blind trial using a 0.5% Aloe vera cream found that applying
- the cream three times a day shortened the healing time of genital
- herpes outbreaks.
- All but 3 of 22 persons in the study who showed healing with the aloe
- cream had no recurrences 15 months after stopping treatment.
Shingles is a disease caused by
the same virus (Varicella zoster)
that causes chicken pox.
Acute, painful inflamed blisters
form on one side of the trunk
along a peripheral nerve.
Shingles usually affects the
elderly or people with
compromised immune function.
Nerve pain that persists after
other symptoms have cleared is
called post-herpetic neuralgia.
- The hot component of Cayenne pepper, known as capsaicin, is used to
- relieve the pain of postherpetic neuralgia. In a double-blind trial, a cream
- containing 0.075% capsaicin, applied three to four times per day to the
- painful area, greatly reduced pain.
- Licorice has been used by doctors as a topical agent for shingles and
- postherpetic neuralgia; however, no clinical trials support its use for this
- purpose. Glycyrrhizin, one of the active components of licorice, has been
- shown to block the replication of Varicella zoster.
Definition of Dementia
According to Davidson’s Principles and
Practice of Medicine, Dementia is a clinical
syndrome characterised by a loss of
previously acquired intellectual function in
the absence of impairment of arousal
- Causes of Dementia
- There are many different potential causes of
- dementia but cerebral atrophy, usually due to
- Alzheimer's disease (more than 50%) , and diffuse
- vascular disease are the most common.
- Other causes
- Alcoholism, Parkinson’s Disease, Drug intoxication
The effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on memory,
concentration and learning, are most marked in cases where
there is a history of impaired cerebrovascular circulation or
mental deterioration due to the ageing process
In a number of controlled clinical trials on such patients
Ginkgo biloba extract improved recent and short-term
memory, concentration, intelligence score, cognitive abilities
and psychometric performance
- Ginkgo is non toxic and
- relatively free of side effects
- However, it needs to be
- administered for many
- years prior to the onset of
- the disease to protect
- against neuron damage
Can form a key part of the treatment of
Also of interest in older people whose
memories are weakening
And for younger people wanting to get the
most out of their mental functions
- Bacopa monnieri
- A traditional Ayurvedic herb used as a brain tonic,
- and to improve memory and learning
- Also used to promote longevity, nervous deficit due
- to injury and stroke
- In India it is called Brahmi - as is Gotu Kola Centella
- The two plants share similar uses, and they are
- sometimes confused in the literature
Improved motor efficiency
and learning in an
Improved acquisition and
retention and delayed
extinction of newly acquired
Also sedative and
- Paeonia lactiflora
- Japanese research has
- shown in a number of
- studies that Paeonia and
- paeoniflorin are cognition
Lignans from Schisandra chinensis improved
concentration, fine co-ordination and sensitivity in
healthy young male adults as assessed by tasks
such as threading a needle and telegraphic
reception and transmission
Schisandra improved vision, enlarged the visual
field, improved hearing and heightened skin sensory
It was thought that those effects are central rather
- Eleuthrococcus senticosus
- Siberian Ginseng also
- contains lignans
- receiving 2 g per day for
- thirty days showed
- improvement in work speed
- with fewer errors
- Proof readers also showed
- improved quality of work
- and improved output at the
- same doses