superior and inferior
Outer connective tissue layer of a blood vessel
Inner endothelial tissue of a blood vessel
The inner smooth layer of a blood vessel
Tunica tunica media
The standards of right and wrong in a medical setting
Code of ethics
What do you find in capillaries?
A mixture of venous and arterial blood is found
The average adult has how many liters of blood?
What is the percentage of water in Blood?
Percentage of Plasma in blood
Percentage of Formed Elements in Blood
99% of formed elements in blood
RBCs or Erythrocytes
Where you find hemoglobin
Where do all blood cells originate?
How many RBCs per micro liter of blood
What is the second most numerous WBC?
Lymphocyte with 20-40%
Their numbers increases in intracellular infections and TB
Their numbers increase in bacterial infections and often are first on scene.
These WBC,s play an important role in viral infection as well as in Immunity.
Number of leukocytes for average adult per micro liter
Decrease in WBC,s seen with viral infection and leukemia
Comprises 3-8% of WBC or leukocytes
Largest In size of the leukocytes
Injury to a blood vessel that causes it to constrict ,slowing the clod of blood
Vascular Phase of Hemostasis
Preferred site for venipuncture
Test used to evaluate the intrinsic pathway and monitor heparin therapy
APTT also know as PTT
Test used to evaluate the extrinsic pathway and also used to monitor Warfarin therapy
Breakdown and removal of a clot
Converts the temporary platelet plug into a stable fibrin clot
2nd choice vein for venipuncture and most often the only one palpatable in an obese Pt.
Antiseptics used in Phlebotomy
70% isopropyl alcohol pads most common, provolone - iodine for BC,s and chlorhexidine gluconate for patients that are allergic to Betadine/ Iodine.
Length of needle commonly used in venipuncture
1 inch ( up to 1.5")
Gauge of needle that can cause hemolysis
Smaller than 23 gauge
Average gauge of needle used for drawing blood
3 skills of the Phlebotomist
Analytical errors during collection of blood
Extended tourniquet time,hemolysis,wrong order of draw,failure to invert tubes,faulty technique under filling tubes
Analytical errors before collection of blood
Patient misidentification,improper time,wrong tube, not fasting,exercise( cortisol levels),Pt.posture,poor coordination with other treatments,improper site prep,medication interference
Analytical errors after blood collection
Failure to separate serum from cell(glycolisis),improper use of serum separator( not inverting tubes or not spinning tubes) delays in processing, exposure to light,improper storage conditions,dimming clots
Permanent surgical connection between an artery and a vein, never used for venipuncture
Accumulation of fluid in tissue
Inflammation of a vein with clot formation
Explanation of Hemoconcentration
The increase in proportion of formed elements to plasma caused by leaving on the tourniquet for more than 2 minutes
Consequence of insufficient pressure applied after withdrawal of needle
additives in green top tube
why is the green top tube never used for hematology?
Green tops additive heparin interferes with the Wright's stained blood test
common tests for the light blue sodium citrate tube