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2013-06-18 02:33:35

Anatomy 2402 notes
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  1. Gross or macroscopic anatomy
    the study of large body structures visible to the naked eye
  2. Regional Anatomy
    all the structures in a particular region of the body
  3. Systematic Anatomy
    body structure is studyed system by system
  4. Surface Anatomy
    the study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface
  5. Microscopic Anatomy
    structures that are exceedingly cut in thin slices of body tissues that are stained and mounted on glass slides to be examined under the microscope
  6. Cytology
    the cells of the body
  7. Histology
    the study of the tissues
  8. Developmental Anatomy
    traces structural changes that occur in the body throught the life span
  9. Embryology
    concerns developmental changes that occur before birth
  10. Pathological Anatomy
    structural changes caused by disease
  11. Radiographic Anatomy
    studies internal structures as visualized by X-ray images or specialized scanning procedures
  12. Subdivisions of Anatomy
    (1)Surface anatomy, (2)gross anatomy, (3)systematic anatomy, (4)regional anatomy, (5)radiographic anatomy, (6)developmental anatmomy, (7)embryology, (8)cytology, and (9)pathological anatomy
  13. Physiology
    the study of how body structures function
  14. Subdivisions of Physiology
    (1)cell physiology, (2)systems physiology, (3)pathophysiology, (4)exercise physiology, (5)neurophysiology, (6)endocrinology, (7)cardiovascular physiology, (8)immunophysiology,(9)respiratory physiology, (10)renal physiology, and (11)reproductive physiology.
  15. Renal Physiology
    concerns kidney function and urine production
  16. Neurophysiology
    explains the workings of the nervous system
  17. Cardiovascular physiology
    examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels
  18. Levels of Structural Organization
  19. Types of Tissues
    Epithelium, Muscle, Connective tissue, Nervous tissue
  20. Epithelium
    covers the body surface and lines its cavities
  21. Muscle tissue
    provides movement
  22. Connective tissue
    supports and protects body organs
  23. Nervous tissue
    provides a means of rapid internal communication by transmitting electrical impulses
  24. 11 Organ Systems
    Integumentary, skeletal, muscle, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive
  25. Life Processes
    Metabolism, Responsiveness, Movement, Growth, Differentiation and Reproduction
  26. Metabolism
    the sum of all chemical processes that occur in teh body
  27. Catabolism
    breaking down substances into their simpler building blocks
  28. Anabolism
    synthesizing more complex cellular structures from simpler substances
  29. Responsiveness
    is the ability to detect and respond to changes in teh external or internal environment
  30. Movement
    includes motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells, or even organelles inside cells
  31. Growth
    refers to an increase in size and complexity, due to an increase in numer of cells, size of cells, or both
  32. Differentiation
    is the change in a cell from an unspecialized state to specialized state
  33. Reproduction
    refers either to the formation of new cells for growth, repair, or replacement, or to the production of a new individual
  34. Homeostasis
    is a condition in which the body's internal environment reamins within certain phyiological limits
  35. Homeostatic Control
    Stimulus-->Receptor-->Control Center-->Effector
  36. Receptor
    monitors changes in the controlled condition and then sends the information called the input to the control center
  37. Control Center
    determines the point at which a controlled condition should be maintained
  38. Effector
    receives information, called the output, from the control center and produces a response
  39. Negative Feedback Mechanism
    if a response reverses the original stimulus (back to normal)
  40. Negative Feedback: Blood Pressure
    If stimulus (stress) causes blood presuure (controlled condition) to rise, pressure-sensitive nerve cells (receptors) in certain blood arteries send impulses (input) to the brain (control center). The brain sendds impulses (output) to the heart (effector), causing the heart rate to decrease (response) and the return of blood pressure to normal (restoration of homeostasis).
  41. Axial
    Head, Neck, and Trunk
  42. Appendicular
    limsns, which are attached to the body's axis
  43. Sagittal Plane
    vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts
  44. Frontal Plane (coronal)
    anterior/posterior vertical
  45. Transverse Plane (cross section)
    superior/inferior runs horizontally
  46. Oblique sections
    are cuts made diagonally between the horizontal and the vertical planes
  47. Superior (cranial)
    toward the head; above
  48. Inferior (caudal)
    away form the head; below
  49. Ventral (anterior)
    at the front of the body; in front of
  50. Dorsal (posterior)
    at the back of the body; behind
  51. Medial
    toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
  52. Lateral
    away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
  53. Proximal
    closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachement of a limb to the body trunk
  54. Distal
    fartjer from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk