Disease 6-8 - Orbital Disorders

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Author:
sookylala
ID:
224262
Filename:
Disease 6-8 - Orbital Disorders
Updated:
2013-06-22 07:15:14
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disease orbit
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disease
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  1. What is orbital mucormycosis?
    fungal infection of the sinuses
  2. What is orbital cellulitis?
    infection behind orbit
  3. Sx and Tx of orbital cellulitis?
    • fever, acute, unilateral, edema, redness, warmth, painful ophthalmoplegia ON dysfuntion
    • hospital, antibiotics, ct scans
  4. IOID?
    idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease
  5. Sx of IOID
    uni, swelling, chemosis, acute, proptosis, ophthalmoplegia
  6. Tx of IOID?
    steroids, radiotherapy
  7. What is TED?
    • autoimmune, hyperthyroidism
    • f>m
    • infallmation of EOM and orbital tissue
  8. sx and TED?
    • grittiness, photophobia, diplopia, vf defects
    • 1. Soft tissue- swelling, conj hyperaemia, chomosis
    • 2. eyelid retraction- primary gaze, delayed in downgaze
    • 3. Proptosis- prevents eye closure- steroids
    • 4. optic neuropathy- compression of ON or blood supply by EOM muscles
    • 5. Ocular motility- diplopia
  9. tx of TED?
    lubricants, eyelid taping, steroids, surgical decompression, botox
  10. Cavernous haemangioma?
    • unilateral painless proptosis
    • located within muscle cone
    • surgical excision
  11. What is an orbital varices?
    • low pressure/flow, thin walled vessel
    • engorgement can occur via increased venous pressure
  12. What is a direct carotid- cavernous fistula
    • intracavernous part of internal carotid
    • trauma cause
    • flow shunt
    • sx: ptosis, ophthal, raised IOP, haemorrhages
    • tx: surgery, resolves
  13. What is an indirect carotid cavernouse fistula
  14. Lymphangioma
    • benign vascular formation
    • early childhood
    • surgical treatment
  15. What is a superficial dermoid cyst?
    • no displacement of globe
    • infancy
    • mobile under skin
    • excision
  16. What is a deep dermoid cyst?
    • proptosis
    • excision
  17. Mucocele?
    • obstruction of drainiage of sinus secretions
    • gradual proptosis or globe displacement
  18. Encephalocele?
    herniation of csf through congenital skull defect
  19. Meningocele?
    herniation only involving dura
  20. acute dacryocystitis?
    • inflammation of lacrimal sac folllowing blockage
    • tx: antibiotics and warm compresses
  21. What is a dacryoadenitis?
    • inflammation of lacrimal gland
    • sx: warmth, upper lid swelling S SHAPE, warmth, tenderness
  22. Adenoid cystic carcinoma?
    • epithelial tumor of lacrimal gland
    • f>m, 4th
    • exophthalmos, downward globe displacement, ptosis, diplopia, orbital pain
  23. what is an optic nerve glioma?
    • optic nerve sheath tumor
    • childhood, slow, benign
    • proptosis,visual loss, optic atrophy
  24. What is a lymphoma?
    • 6th-8th lymphoid lesions
    • slow onset, anywhere in globe
    • tx: radio/chemotherapy
  25. Rhabdomyosarcoma?
    • most common orbital malignancy- superonasal
    • 7yo
    • sx: proptosis, swelling mass, ptosis, injection
    • tx: radio/chemo
    • ddx: oribtal: NOT warm
  26. Orbital meningioma?
    • 80% arise from optic nerve sheath
    • PAINLESS, decreased VA, proptosis
  27. 3 main types of lacrimal gland tumours?
    • lymphoid/psuedo tumours- 50%
    • pleomorphic adenoma- 25%
    • malignant- 25%
  28. What is a pleomorphic lacrimal gland adenoma?
    • benign- adult
    • epithelial tumour of lacrimal gland- orbital lobe
    • sx: painless, proptosis, ophthalmoplegia, slow progression
    • tx: excision
  29. What are the 3 types of malignant lacrimal gland tumours?
    • pleomorphic adenocarcinoma- 20%
    • adenocystic carcinoma- 60%
    • mucoepidermoid carcinoma- 20%
  30. What is an adenoid cystic carcinoma?
    rapid proptosis
  31. Most common tumor to spread to the orbit?
    • breast
    • lung
    • prostate
  32. Neuroblastoma?
    • rare childhood oribal metastases
    • sx: abrupt, bilateral, ptoptosis, superior orbital mass, raccoon eyes
  33. Myeloid sarcoma?
    • childhood orbital metastases
    • localised tumour of myeloid cells
    • rapid prop, lie edema, ecchymosis, 
    • 7yo
  34. Langerhans cell granulomatosis?
    • VERY RARE child orbital metastases
    • may destroy orbital bone via imflammatory lesions
  35. Sinus tumours?
    • maxillary: most common, face pain and swelling, nasal discahrge, nosteplead, dystopia, epiphora, diplopia
    • ethmoidal: lateral dystopia
    • nasopharyngeal: poptosis

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