Med Terms 8

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Med Terms 8
2013-06-19 15:57:53
medical terminology blood

Lesson 8
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  1. Function of Blood System
    Transport nutrients, gases & wastes to and from the cells of the body

    Transport hormones from their sites of secretion to sites throughout the body

    Protect the body with circulating WBCs, antibodies of the immune system & clotting factors
  2. Composition of Blood
    55% is liquid or plasma 

    Consists of water, dissolved proteins, sugar, wastes, salts, hormones & vitamins
  3. Composition of Blood (formed elements)
    • 45% is formed elements
    • Erythrocytes (red blood cells)- carry O2

    Leukocytes (white blood cells)- provide immunity

    • Platelets (thrombocytes)- clotting cells
    • Play role in hemostasis
  4. Formation of Blood
    • All blood cells originate in the bone marrow, Red & White cells both arise from the same HEMATOPOIETIC stem cells 
    • Stem cells undergo a process of DIFFERENTIATION from immature to mature cells
  5. Hematopoiesis
    States in blood cell development
  6. Erthrocytes
    • During maturation, loses its nucleus & assumes shape of a biconcave disk
    • Production is stimulated by ERTHROPOIETIN (secreted by kidneys)
    • Life span ~120 days
    • 2-10 mil destroyed per sec & continually replaced
    • MACROPHAGES (in spleen, liver, & bone marrow) break them down
  7. Erythrocytes contains...
    • Hemoglobin, composed of heme (iron containing pigment) & globin (protein)
    • Enables it to carry O2
    • O2 + Hemoglobin = Red Color
  8. Heme is broken down into...
    BILIRUBIN (excreted by liver in bile) & IRON (reused or stored in liver, spleen or bone marrow
  9. Five Types of Mature Leukocytes
    • 1. Basophils
    • 2. Eosinophils
    • 3. Neutrophils

    • 4. Monocytes
    • 5. Lymphocytes
  10. Basophils
    (0-1%) Contain histamine that are released in allergic reactions
  11. Eosinophils
    (1-4%) Increase in allergic reactions & engulf substances that trigger the allergic reaction (i.e. allergens)
  12. Neutrophils
    (50-70%) Are phagocytes; accumulate at sites of infection and ingest/destroy bacteria
  13. Monocytes
    (3-8%) Phagocytic cells that fight disease
  14. Lymphocytes
    (20-40%) Play a crucial role in the immune response; make antibodies & destroy foreign antigens
  15. Thrombocytes/Platelets
    Formed from giant cells in the bone marrow called MEGAKARYOCYTES

    Tiny fragments break off to form platelets

    Helps blood clot
  16. Clotting Factors
    Any of the various plasma components involved in the clotting process
  17. Coagulation
    Clotting; changing from a liquid to a solid state
  18. Blood Clotting/Coagulation
    Platelets begin clumping (aggregating) at site of injury

    Complicated enzymatic cascade ends in a FIBRIN CLOT FORMATION

    Anticoagulant substances (i.e. heparin, produced by tissue cells) in the blood INHIBIT clotting
  19. Bas/o
    Base (opposite of acid)
  20. Chrom/o, Chromat/o
  21. Coagul/o
  22. Cyt/o
  23. Eosin/o
    Red, rosy
  24. Erythr/o
  25. Granul/o
  26. Hem/o, Hemat/o
  27. Hemoglobin/o
  28. Immun/o
    Immune, safe, protection
  29. Leuk/o
  30. Lymph/o
  31. Mon/o
    One, single
  32. Morph/o
    Shape, form
  33. Myel/o
    Bone marrow
  34. Neutr/o
  35. Nucle/o
  36. Path/o
  37. Phag/o
    Eat, swallow
  38. Phleb/o
  39. Plas/o
    Formation, development
  40. Thromb/o
  41. Auto-
    Self, own
  42. Macro-
  43. Micro-
  44. Pro-
    Before, forward
  45. Poly-
    Many, much
  46. -apheresis
    Removal, a carrying away
  47. -blast
    Immature cell, embryonic
  48. -cyte
  49. -cytosis
    Abnormal condition of cells, (increase in cells)
  50. -emia
    Blood condition
  51. -globin, -globulin
  52. -lysis
    Destruction, breakdown, separation
  53. -lytic
    Pertaining to destruction
  54. -oid
    Derived from
  55. -penia
  56. -phage
    Eat, swallow
  57. -philia
    Attraction for
  58. -poiesis
  59. -stasis
    Stopping, controlling
  60. Hemolytic
    Pertaining to the rupture or destruction of red blood cells
  61. Immunoglobin
    • Immuno: Immune, protection, safe
    • Globulin: Protein
  62. Hemostasis
    • Hem/o: Blood
    • Stasis: Stop, control
  63. Anemia
    Deficiency in erthyrocytes or hemoglobin
  64. Aplastic Anemia
    Disorder in which bone marrow does not produce enough red blood cells

    Cause is usually unknown
  65. Pancytopenia
    Deficiency in all types of blood cells, occurs when stem cells don't produce leukocytes, erythrocytes or platelets

    Treatment: Blood transfusions, bone marrow transplantation and drug treatment
  66. Pernicious Anemia
    Disorder in which the number of red blood cells declines with simultaneous enlargement of individual cells (i.e. macrocytes) due to an inability to absorb vitamin B-12

    Treatment: administration of Vitamin B 12
  67. Iron Deficiency Anemia
    Most common type of anemia, disorder in which hemoglobin is unable to transport O2 due to a lack of iron
  68. Sickle Cell Anemia
    Hereditary, prevalent in black persons of African or African American ancestry
  69. Sickle Shaped Erythrocytes
    • Caused by abnormal hemoglobin (hemoglobin S), can't pass through small blood vessels
    • THROMBOSIS & Infarction, Hemolysis
    • Signs & Symptoms: Arthralgias, acute attacks of abdominal pain, ulcerations of the extremities
  70. Polycythemia (RBC Disease)
    • Increase in red blood cells
    • Thick or viscous blood consistency
    • Bone marrow is hyperplastic
    • Treatment: reduce volume of RBCs
    • Plebotomy
    • Myelotoxic drugs to suppress blood cell production
  71. Hemophilia
    • Bleeding disorder due to a deficiency of a clotting factor (FVIII or FIX)
    • Treatment: administration of deficient factor
  72. Thrombocytopenia
    • Disorder involving low levels of platelets in blood (clotting disorder)
    • Normal platelet count (140,000-400,000)
    • Increased bleeding time (<100,000)
    • Spontaneous bleeding (<10,000)
  73. Autoimmune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)
    • Patient makes an antibody that destroys their platelets
    • Results in bruising & bleeding from mucous membranes
  74. Petechiae
    Tiny purple or red flat spots on skin; indicates hemorrhage
  75. Ecchymoses
    Larger blue or purplish patches (bruises) on the skin
  76. Leukemia
    • Cancer of the body's blood-forming tissues, including the bone marrow & the lymphatic system 
    • Acute- primarily immature leukocytes
    • Chronic- primarily mature leukocytes
  77. Acute Leukemia
    Symptoms- Abrupt, fatigue, bleeding, bone pain & tenderness, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly

    Treatment--> Chemotherapy- destroy rapidly growing cells & prevent cell division
  78. Transplantation
    • Infusion of normal bone marrow/stem cells from donors of similar tissue type
    • Performed after high dose of chemotherapy to eliminate leukemic cells
  79. Mononucleosis
    • Infectious disease marked by increased numbers of leukocytes & enlarged cervical notes
    • Caused by Epstein Barr Virus

    • Mode of Transportation: SALIVARY EXCHANGE
    • Treatment: Rest
  80. Multiple Myeloma
    • Malignant neoplasm of bone marrow
    • Malignant lymphocytes destroy bone tissue & cause overproduction of immunoglobins
    • Leads to osteolytic lesions, hyperclcemia, anemia, renal damage
    • Treatment: radiotherapy, palliative chemotherapy
  81. Complete Blood Count (CDC)
    Automated count of all blood cells (white cells, red cells, platelets), hemoglobin & hemocrit

    • Hemoglobin- total amount of hemoglobin in a sample of blood
    • Hematocrit- percentage of red blood cells in a volume of blood
  82. Red Blood Cell Count (RBC)
    Number of erythrocytes present per cubic millimeter or microliter; used to diagnose various disorders including anemia
  83. White Blood Cell Count (WBC)
    Number of leukocytes present per cubic millimeter or microliter; used to diagnose various disorders, including infections & disease, & for monitoring treatment
  84. Platelet Count (PLT)
    Number of platelets present; used to diagnose bleeding disorders or bone marrow disease
  85. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
    Time measurement of RBCs settling in a test tube in a given amount of time; rate increases with infection, joint inflammation
  86. Prothrombin Time (PT)
    Test of the ability for blood to clot; used to monitor patients taking anticoagulant drugs
  87. WBC Differential Count
    Evaluation of the percentage of the total WBC count made up by different types of leukocytes
  88. Apheresis
    • Separation of blood into component parts & removal of a select part
    • WBCs, platelets, plasma
  89. Cross-matching
    Blood typing test for compatibility between donor and recipient blood
  90. Blood Component Therapy
    Transfusion of specific blood components such as packed RBCs, plasma or platelets
  91. Autologous Blood
    Blood donated for future use by same patient; usually presurgical
  92. Homologous Blood
    Blood donated from same species for use by a compatible recipient
  93. Bone Marrow Aspiration (BMA)
    Removal of a small amount of fluid & cells from inside the bone with a needle & syringe
  94. Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT)
    Transfer of bone marrow from one person to another
  95. Allergology
    Medical specialty concerned with diagnosis & treatment of allergy & sensitivity
  96. Hematology
    Medical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the blood and blood-forming organs
  97. Rheumatology
    Medical specialty concerned with diagnosis & treatment of rheumatic conditions & autoimmune diseases