bio exam 2 ch 4

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amandaadair10
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224286
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bio exam 2 ch 4
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2013-06-19 10:39:25
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biology cell membrane structure function cycle cellular reproduction
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cell structure and function
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  1. 5 modern tenets of the cell theory
    • 1. All living things  made up of cells.
    • 2. the cell is basic unit of all living things.
    • 3. all cells come from pre-existing cells by division.(Spontaneous Generation does not occur).
    • 4. cells  w/ hereditary information passed from cell.
    • 5. All cells - same chemical composition.
    • 6. all energy flow  occurs within cells.
  2. who coined the term cells
    dr. Robert hooke
  3. who contributed to the modern cell theory
    • Schleiden
    • Schwann
    • Virchow
  4. why are cells so small?
    a cell is a system by itself and needs a surface area large enough to allow adequate nutrients to enter and wastes to exit. small cells have the necessary surface area to volume ratio
  5. rule for surface area to volume ratio
    as cell size decreases, surface area to volume ratio increases
  6. prokaryotic cells (5 properties)
    • 1. lack membrane bound nucleus
    • 2. smaller and simpler than eukaryotic cells
    • 3. two domains: bacteria and archaea
    • 4. are diverse
    • 5. are versatile
  7. 4 shapes of prokaryotes
    • coccus- spherical
    • bacillus- rod shaped
    • spirochete- spiral shaped and flexible
    • spirillum- spiral shaped and rigid
  8. parts of a bacteria/prokaryote
    • capsule: gel like coating outside cell wall
    • cell wall: covering that supports, shapes and protects
    • plasma membrane: around cytoplasm; regulates entrance and exit of molecules
    • nucleoid: location of the bacterial chromosome
    • conjugation/sex pilus: appendage used for DNA transfer to other cells
    • fimbriae: hairlike bristles that allow adhesion to surfaces
    • flagellum: rotating filament that push the cell forward
  9. all eukaryotic cells contain?
    size in relation to prokaryotic?
    • contain: membrane bound nucleus that houses DNA
    • plasma membrane
    • cytoplasm
    • size: much larger than prokaryotic cells
  10. evolution of eukaryotic cells
    endosymbiotic hypothesis
    • invagination of plasma membrane
    • -mitochondria and chloroplasts were bacteria taken in by larger cells that already had a nucleus
    • evidence- mitochondria
    • - are similar to bacteria
    • -are bounded by double membrane
    • -contain own DNA and can split
    • -have ribosomes that make proteins
  11. nucleus
    command center of the cell
  12. nuclear envelope
    double membrane w nuclear pores that encloses nucleus
  13. chromatin
    diffuse threads containing DNA and protein
  14. nucleolus
    region that produces subunits of ribosomes
  15. rough ER
    studded with ribosomes that synthesize proteins
  16. smooth ER
    lacks ribosomes, synthesizes lipids
  17. ribosomes
    particles that carry out protein synthesis
  18. polyribosome
    string of ribosomes simultaneously synthesizing same protein
  19. mitochondrion
    organelle that carries out cellular respiration, producing ATP molecules
  20. Golgi apparatus
    processes, packages, and secrets modified proteins
  21. cytoplasm
    semifluid matrix outside nucleus that contains organelles
  22. vesicle
    small membrane-bound sac that stores and transports substances
  23. lysosome
    • vesicle that digests macromolecules and even cell parts
    • not in plant cells
  24. centrosome
    microtubule organizing center that contains a pair of centrioles
  25. centrioles
    • short cylinders of microtubules
    • not in plant cells
  26. cytoskeleton
    • maintains cell shape and assists movement of cell parts
    • 3 fibers of macromolecules
    • actin filaments, intermediate filaments microtubules
  27. actin filaments
    protein fibers that play a role in cell division and shape
  28. intermediate filaments
    protein fibers that provide stability of shape
  29. microtubules
    protein cylinders that move organelles
  30. plasma membrane
    outer surface that regulates entrance and exit of molecules; made of phospholipid bi-layer and embedded with proteins
  31. central vacuole
    • large fluid-filled sac that stores metabolites and helps maintain turgor pressure
    • plant cells only
  32. choloroplast
    • carries out photosynthesis, producing sugars
    • plant cells only
  33. granum
    • stack of chlorophyll-containing thylakoids in a chloroplast
    • plant cells only
  34. cell wall
    • outer surface that shapes, supports, and protects cell
    • plant cells only
  35. difference between plant and animal cells
    • plant cells have: central vacuole, cell wall, chloroplast, and granum
    • animal cells have: lysosomes & centrioles

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