Parasitology Lec part 111; Vet Tech

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Parasitology Lec part 111; Vet Tech
2014-06-26 12:08:05
Cestodes Trematodes Protozoans

Cestodes, Trematodes, Protozoans
Show Answers:

  1. Adult tapes live in _________ with their larval tape forms living in either _______ or __________ intermediate host.
    • vertebrates 
    • vertebrate/invertebrate  
  2. Taenia pisiformis
    Definitive host: 
    Name the larval form:
    Intermediate host for larval form:
    • dog 
    • Cysticercus pisiformis
    • rabbit
  3. Cestodes
    ___________ lives in the dog.
    ___________ is the larvae form that lives in the rabbit. Rabbit is the intermediate host.
    • Taenia pisiformis
    • Cysticercus pisiformis
  4. Zoonotic Tapes cause a condition known as ___________. This can result in intestinal cramping, diarrhea, and anal pruritus.
    Name 6 zoonotic tapes
    • Dipylidiasis
    • Taenia multiceps
    • Taenia serialis
    • Taenia crassiceps
    • Echinococcus granulosus * Liver parasite
    • Echinococcus multilocularis *lung parasite
    • Dipylidium caninum *
  5. Who are at the greatest risk of eating fleas containing larvae?
  6. The most zoonotic parasites are
    • Strongyloides stercoralis
    • Echinococcus granulosus
    • E. multilocularis
  7. ___________ are the primary definitive host for the most of the serious and often fatal tape infections.
    Wild animals
  8. Echinococcus granulosus, called the _______, produces the disease called __________. The larval parasite migrates through the __________. Treatment with pharmaceuticals is possible but surgery is often preferred.
    • hydatid cyst
    • cystic hydatid disease
    • liver and lungs
  9. Aquatic Tapes
    Phylum – 
    Class –
    Order - ______________(pseudotapeworms) 
    Order – ______________(true tapeworms) 
    Family - 
    Family –______________(Cotyloda)
    Genera –
    • Phylum – Platyhelminthes
    • Class – Cestoda
    • Order -  Pseudophyllidae (pseudotapeworms) 
    • Order – Cyclophyllidae (true tapeworms) 
    • Family - Eucestoda
    • Family – Diphyllobothridae (Cotyloda)
    • Genera – Diphyllobothrium, Spirometra pass entire stobila
  10. The Family ______ are dependent on water ways for intermediate host. Mostly vertebrates, fish are their favorite intermediate.
  11. The Order___________ have a scolex with 4 radically disposed muscular cups (suckers) that serve the function of attachment and locomotion. The apex of the scolex there is a dome shaped projection, the rostellum. The rostellum can retract into the scolex.
    Cyclophyllidae (Eucestoda)
  12. __________ (Eucestode) strobila have marginal pores. Taenia with one on the ___, Mesocestoides with one in the ____, and Dipylidium with two, one on each ____.
    • Cyclophyllidae 
    • margin
    • center
    • margin
  13. Diphyllobothridae - These aquatics have only one uterine pore like the Taenia and Mesocestodes, but these aquatic forms discharge their eggs in ________. The terminal segments of these aquatic tapes become senile instead of gravid and are usually ___________ rather than segments like the Eucestodes.
    • the intestines
    • detached in chains
  14. Cyclophyllidae (Eucestodes) – we see ______ individually on the host. 
    Diphyllobothridae we see _________ discharged
    • gravids segments
    • ribbons of segments
  15. Egg structure:
    ________ – externally to protect the embryo
    ________ – serves as a waste disposal area as well as a port for nutrition and protection.
    ________ – the vermiform embryo itself
    • Egg Capsule
    • Embryophore
    • Oncosphere
  16. __________(name for developing larvae) is applied to all cestode stages that parasitize the intermediate host
  17. The Metacestodal stage of the development - it bores into the wall of the intestines of the intermediate host with one mission.
    To develop a scolex.
  18. What are 2 Treatment for Cestodes 
    Epsiprantel (CESTEX) & PRAZIQUANTEL.
  19. Taenia pisiformis
    List the Definitive host, The Metacestode name and intermediate host
    • Taenia pisiformis - dog, 
    • Cysticercus pisiformis - rabbit
  20. Taenia hydatigena
    List the Definitive host, The Metacestode name and intermediate host
    • Taenia hydatigena - dog
    • Cysticercus tenuicollis - cattle, sheep, swine
  21. Taenia solium
    List the Definitive host, The Metacestode name and intermediate host
    • Taenia solium - man
    • Cysticercus cellulosae - swine, man
  22. Taenia ovis
    List the Definitive host, The Metacestode name and intermediate host
    • Taenia ovis - dog
    • Cysticercus ovis - sheep
  23. List the Definitive host, The Metacestode name and intermediate host for Taenia taeniaeformis
    • Taenia taeniaeformis - cat
    • Cysticercus fasciolaris - rodent
  24. Echinococcus grandulosus
    List the Definitive host, The Metacestode name and intermediate host
    • Echinococcus grandulosus - dog
    • Hydatid cyst (multiple scolex) - sheep, man
  25. Tapes and their larvae are named according to the
    number of bladder and scolex they possess
  26. ___________ – one bladder and one scolex and all belong to the Genus Taenia
  27. Large animal Cysticercoid larvae
    Intermediate host:
    • Anaplocephalidae
    • horse, cattle, sheep, and goats
    • mite (Oribatei)
  28. Most Common Tape:
    Definitive Host: 
    Larval Name:
    3 intermediate hosts for larval form:
    • Dipylidium caninum 
    • dog  
    • Cysticercoid 
    • flea (Ctenocephalides spp),
    • biting lice (Trichodectes canis) &
    • sucking lice (Linognathus setosus).
  29. __________- This is the third type of Metacestoid stage larvae that is relatively common tape we see in dogs and cats, that being the fore mentioned
  30. Larvae – Tetrathyridium
    • Mesocestoides 
    • dog and cats
  31. Where would you find the larcal form of Tetrathyridium in your mesocestoides?
    • (1) in perineal cavity of mammals
    • (2) in reptiles
    • (3) in the lungs of birds
  32. Name the 3 Larval form name for Cestodes
    • Cysticercus
    • Cysticeroid
    • Tetrathyridium
  33. Aquatic tapes must have what TWO intermediate host.
    • 1st – crustacean (example snail or clam)
    • 2nd – also must be aquatic (fish etc.) but it can also be an amphibian (frog)
  34. Cestodes of Interest 
    Phylum – 
    Class – 
    Order – 
    Family –
    Genus -  Dipylidium
    • Phylum – Platyhelminthes
    • Class – Cestoda
    • Order – Cyclophyllidae
    • Family – Dilepididae
  35. __________ is the most common tape that we see in dogs and cats especially in humid areas since the ____________ are the common intermediate host.
    • Dipylidium caninum
    • flea and the biting lice (mallophaga)
  36. Phylum – 
    Class – Cestoda
    Genus – Taenia 
    Species of interest – pisiformis, taeniaeformis, Hydatigera
    • Phylum – Platyhelminthes
    • Class – Cestoda
    • Order Cyclophyllidae
    • Family Taeniidae
  37. Taenia pisiformis - Although it is listed as a parasite of wolves, foxes, and carnivores including the cat, the ______ is still considered the definitive host. Intermediate Host – can be rabbits, rats, and squirrels as well as many different rodents; however the ________is considered the definitive intermediate host. eggs hatch inside the animal and inhabit the __________.
    • dog 
    • rabbit
    • liver of the rabbit
  38. Like T. pisiformis metacestodal form, the metacestodal form of T. taeniaeformis will inhabit the ____ in the rodent; however with ____________, there is much damage to this organ and the rodent may die before being consumed by a feline
    • liver 
    • Cysticercus fasciolaris
  39. Taenia hydatigena - Found in the intestines of wild dogs, coyotes and wolves, the ____ is still the definitive host. _________ utilizes the ___________ as their intermediate host. Another name for the larval stage is the “_________”. These metacestodal forms do no inhabit the liver but attach to the ___________in the peritoneal cavity.
    • dog 
    • Cysticercus tenuicollis
    • sheep, cattle and swine
    • thin-necked bladder worm
    • mesentery
  40. Echinococcus granulosus - The _________ are considered the definitive host for the “_______” with the intermediate host being anything from __________________.
    • dog and wolves
    • Hydatid (cysts) Tapeworm
    • man, sheep, cattle and moose
  41. E. granulosus eggs are ingested, hatch and oncospheres invade circulation and lodge in the liver and lungs. They develop into metacestodes with multiple _______ and are called the ___________. The omnivores then consume the primarily herbivores serving as the intermediate host
    • scolices 
    • hydatid cysts
  42. Two Forms of Hydatid Infection
    • 1. Echinococcus granulosus
    •     Nickname: hydatid cyst
    •     Disease Name: known as the Cystic Hydatid Disease in man
    •     Source:n Dog eats infected int host liver & eating raw meat
    • 2. Echinococuccus multilocularis
    •     Nickname: “Alveolar Hydatid”
    •     Causes: cancerous lung tumor
    •     Source: fruits and vegs in fields contaminated with feces from infected foxes, coyotes or dogs or handling cats and dogs that have eaten infected rodents.
  43. What form of Echinococcus today is considered the most important and most pathogenic.
    Echinococcus multilocularis
  44. Echinococcus multicularis in the human is called the ___________ and is seen most commonly in the ________.
    • Alveolar Hydatid Disease 
    • lungs
  45. So how do we see tapes?
    Nationally the average positive fecal count for all types of tapes is around __% for routine preliminary examinations
    However, necropsy positive run around ____% + when the abdomen is open on laparotomy
    • 2.5%
    • 35-62%
  46. Cestodes in the Equine
    Phylum - 
    Class –
    Order – 
    Family – 
    Genus -
    • Phylum - Platyhelminthes
    • Class –Cestoda
    • Order – Cyclophyllidae
    • Family – Anocephalidae
    • Genus - Anoplocephala perfoliata, A. magna, A. mamallana
  47. Anaplocephala species - All live in the intestines of horses and are considered the primary cestodes of horses; however, they can also live and reproduce in herbivorous mammals as well as __________. The metacestodal stage is a ________ utilizing ______ primarily as the intermediate host.
    • monkeys and birds
    • cysticercoid
    • mites
  48. ___________ is the primary cestode in the southwest part of the US and is of little threat as most anthelmintics easily rid the equine of this parasite due to a lack of hooks
    Anoplocephala perfoliata
  49. Taxonomy of Ruminants Cestodes
    Phylum – 
    Class – 
    Order – 
    Family – 
    Genus – Moneiza expansa, Monieza bendeni
    • Phylum – Platyhelminthes
    • Class – Cestoda
    • Order – Cyclophyllidae
    • Family – Anoplocephalidae
  50. List two cestode parasites that are seen most commonly in the cow, sheep and goat.
    Both are members of the family _______.
    • 1. Moniezia expanza
    • 2. Moniezia benedini
    • Anoplocephalidae
  51. ____________ is the most common cestode species in the pig. Nickame - ______. 30cm in length has distinctive eggs and a light pink color with wrinkles. The _____ serves as the intermediate host for the for its metacestodal form which fortunately is yet to be named.
    • Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus
    • “Thorny Headed Worm”
    • beetle (any beetle)
  52. Trematodes Order – _______ – as all trematodes that parasitize horses, ruminants, swine, dogs and cats come under this order
  53. Trematode Life Cycle
    • 1. Egg is laid in water.
    • 2. Egg hatch to Miracidium with cilia and swims
    • 3. Miracidium penetrates body of snail
    • 4. In snail picks up Miracidium turns into Sporocyst
    • 5. Sporocysts (asexually) > 10 Rediae
    • 6. 10 Rediae (asexually) > 100 Cercariae infective stage of trematode
    • 7. Cercariae leave the snail swim to grass where they are consumed by ruminant. Metamorphoses occurs and they are capable of sexual reproduction.
    • If weather is in-climate, cerariae become Metacercariae
  54. Flukes of the Ruminants - Two diseases are involved in this common host.
    • 1. Fascioliasis
    • 2. Dicrocoeliasis
  55. Fascioliasis – three common causes:
    • Fasciola gigantica – giant liver fluke
    • Fasciola magna – large liver fluke
    • Fasciola hepatica – common liver fluke
  56. Cause of Dicrocoeliasis
    Dicrocoelium lanceatum – lancet or lesser liver fluke
  57. Life Cycle of the Liver Fluke
    • 1. The adult Fasciola hepatic lives in the bile ducts
    • 2. Sexual and asexual reproduction releases eggs
    • 3. Eggs passes through the bile duct into duodenum
    • 4. Eggs are diagnosed on fecal flotation
    • 5. Eggs > Miracidium > Snail > Sporocyts > Rediae > Cercariae > Metacercariae (bad weather) > consumption via host > penetrate bowel > liver for migration and disruption in liver parenchyma.
  58. Black’s Disease -___________ (gram positive bacteria) inhabits the ____ in the vegetative form (active) and assumes the ____ form (dormant).
    • Clostridium novyi
    • liver
    • spore
  59. What is the etiological form for Black’s disease?
    Toxins from Clostridium novyi
  60. _____________ is the primary lung fluke (Trematode) of dogs and occasionally cats. The intermediate host is __________.
    • Paragonimus kellicotti
    • crayfish 
  61. In the northwest, the fluke ________ found in fish carries a rickettsial organism called ________ capable of causing fatal enteritis in dogs. Commonly known as ____________.
    • Nanophytes salmincola (reservoir)
    • Neorickettsia helminthoeca (etiological agent)
    • “Salmon Poisoning” fluke
  62. ________ is still the most common fluke in the U.S.; however this stomach fluke is non-pathogenic.
    Alaria canis
  63. _________ – (_______) is the fluke of cats which inhabit the ________ and pass eggs like the liver flukes of the ruminant. Most frequently seen in the southeast, cats are infected following ingestion of __________.
    • Platynosomum concinnum (Amphimerus felineus)
    • gallbladder and bile ducts
    • lizards or amphibians containing larvae
  64. List 3 Flukacides:
    Proprietary name, non-prop name & manufacturer
    • Valbazen (albendazole) –Pfizer
    • Ivomec –F (also called IVOMEC Plus – ivermectin/clorsulon) Merial
    • Curatrem – Merial specific for liver flukes
  65. Best Times to Deworm?
    • Holidays
    • 1st – Easter or 1st day Spring – spray for flies, too.
    • 2nd – July 4th – spray for flies if no over heating
    • 3rd – Thanksgiving – Levamisole for immune-stimulation properties.
  66. Horses should be dewormed every ________ Cattle ________.
    • 2 months
    • 3 times a year
  67. The National Beef Quality Audit identified _______ as one of the top 10 quality issues facing the beef industry. The fact is, they have been identified or diagnosed in native cattle in __ states
    • liver flukes
    • 26
  68. If your cattle have liver flukes, you pay with:
    • a. reduced pregnancy rates
    • b. weaning weights
    • c. rate of gain
    • d. bull fertility
  69. A four year study conducted at LSU showed that replacement heifers treated for flukes and de-wormed had a __% higher pregnancy rate than heifers treated for worms only. This is considered alarming when the cost of keeping an open cow is $_____ per year. Not to mention, there’s no calf to sell.
    • 15%
    • $363.00
  70. Diseases associated with protozoans include:
    • Coccidiosis (bright red blood),
    • Giardiasis
    • Hemobartonellosis (protozoan in RBC),
    • Piroplasmosis
    • Ehrlichiosis (rickettsia organism in the RBC or WBC)
    • Malaria
    • Trichomoniasis
  71. Another name for piroplasmosis is ______. Etiological agents are _________ - or Texas Fever it would be ________.
    • Babesiosis
    • Babesia canis
    • Babesia bovis
  72. __________ – live in the blood, lymph, and tissue spaces and are transmitted indirectly by blood sucking flies. (Most common - ___)
    __________ – live in the intestinal tract or genital tract and are spread directly through the feces or genital discharges. Live in the mucosa. Normally see in stress situations
    • Hemoflagellates 
    • Stomoxys calcitrans – stable fly
    • Mucoflagellates
  73. Animal with high temp and Dr. administers any antibiotic and the temp doesn’t come down in 24 hours you are dealing with a _____ or ____ in 99% of the cases. 
    • protozoan 
    • fungus 
  74. Hemoflagellates Family - Trypanosoma
    The disease regardless of species is referred to as ____________.
    African Sleeping Sickness
  75. ________ – effects ruminants in South Africa causing ________ using the ________ as the mechanical vector between wild and domestic cattle.
    • Trypanosoma brucci
    • Nagana
    • Tsetse fly
  76. __________ – intermediate host (unique), uses direct sexual contact in horses causing ________ “_______” plaques. Historically this was one of the 1st reportable diseases in the U.S. 
    • Trypanosoma equiperdum
    • Dourine
    • Silver Dollar
  77. Reportable diseases is a disease that can do 1 of 2 things
    • (i) affects man - kill them or make them sick i.e. brucellosis, tuberculosis. They must be common, OR
    • (ii) affects an industry i.e. sarcoptic mange cause loss of money in sheep industry
  78. _________ – is found primarily in dogs. Seen mostly in Mexico, Central and South America, it is occasionally reported in the southern states. It is extracellular and is transmitted by blood feeding arthropods like “assassin bugs”, flying arthropods and often through contact with feces if the infected insects
    Trypanosoma cruzi
  79. T. cruzi also has a resting cyst stage that may be found encysted within cardiac muscle and other tissues. Since it is zoonotic, in humans it is called _______. Symptoms in pets and humans can include cardiac failure, pyrexia, and can be acute or chronic. Diagnosis on blood smears, but may have to be reported before +
    Chagas Disease
  80. Hemoflagates - Family
    __________ is a condition of Leishmania species, another hemoprotozoan. This parasite is primarily found in specific areas of N. America. Primarily seen along the TX and FL beaches. ________ seem to be the transport host of choice
    • Leishmaniasis
    • Sand flies
  81. Hemoflagate is intracellular and it is found within __________ when the sand fly injects in the blood stream
    blood vessels, spleen, liver and other organs
  82. __________ – is an intracellular parasite found within erythrocyte cells of dogs. Called _________, the parasite looks like pear shaped organism within canine RBCs. Transmitted by the ______________ (intermediate host), it is the etiology (______) of Texas Fever. Whole function inside the blood cell is to destroy the blood cells. Animals with this parasite basically run out of oxygen, because they kill the RBCs
    • Babesia canis
    • canine piroplasmosis
    • tick Boophilus annulatus
    • Babesia canis
  83. ________ is another intracellular parasite found in the RBCs of the cats in sporadic sites throughout the US. These bodies are not pear shaped but have been described as being in the shape of a ring and referred to as the ring form in blood smears
    Cytauxzoon felis

  84. Mucoflagellates - Family - Trichomonads
    __________ – this parasite lives in the __________ multiplying in fluid feces and often are blamed for the diarrhea. It does cause abortion, pyometra and sterility.
    • Trichomonas fetus
    • cecum and colon
  85. Trichomoniasis is triggered by _______ – __________is the treatment of choice
    • stress situations
    • metronidazole
  86. _______ – is common mucoflagellate in women but is not considered a pathogen
    Trichomonas vaginalis
  87. Trichomonas is also seen with bacteria in _________ in the mouth of man primarily - nickname ___________  producing pyorrhea and gingival problems.
    • Vincent’s Angina
    • trench mouth
  88. How do you test for Trichomonas, Giardiasis and protozoans that are flagellates
    a direct saline smear
  89. Giardiasis - lives in the _________ unlike all the other mucoflagellates. This is a zoonotic problem in this country with contaminated water supplies.
    small intestines
  90. Family - Sporozoa – Known as a ______
    one primary class here - 
    • Mucosal Apicomplexan
    • Coccidia
  91. Three Genuses exist:
    Eimeria – 
    Isospora – 
    Toxoplasma –
    • farm animals
    • dogs, cats, swine and small companion pets
    • all domestic animals including man
  92. Coccidian Life Cycle
    • 1. Sporozoite are swallowed and invade cells of mucosa and divide to form Merozoites. 
    • 2. Merozoites leave the cells and enter new cells and develop into Male/Female Gamonts.
    • 3. Gamonts mature into Male & Female Macrogametes 
    • 4. The male Macrogamete divides into the Microgamete which fertilizes the female Macrogametes.
    • 5. The female Macrogametes give rise to Zygotes. Only way to tell a zygotes from a oocyst is the zygote is covered with egg yolk around it –the food source.
    • 6. As food materials accumulate around the zygote, it becomes an Oocysts.
    • 7. The oocysts are released at death of the mucosa cell and come out in the feces.
    • 8. Dog consumes oocysts which give rise to 2 –4 Sporocysts which through binary fission will give rise to 4 Sporozoites which is picked up by the definitive host and the process starts over again.
  93. List the genesus from least complex to most complex 
    • Eimeria – simplest of the Genus’s found in farm animals and in birds. Direct Life Cycle
    • Isospora – found in the dog, cat, swine and pocket pets. Life cycle is direct or indirect through sporozoite infected mice that serve as facultative host for I. felis
    • Toxoplasma – sporozoites of T. gondii utilize for direct and indirect means, with the indirect means being far more complex than with Isospora Genus.
  94. Toxoplasma - _________ is the definitive host, all other domestic and non-domestics serve as intermediates.
    Felidae (family) 
  95. Life Cycle of Toxoplasma
    • 1. Eggs pass from the cat.
    • 2. Oocysts, sporocysts, or sporozoites are picked up by intermediate host.
    • 3. Sporozoites (or sporocysts) will migrate into the tissues of the intermediates and become encysted or pass to the placenta in the human and cause abortions.
    • 4. Cat eats the intermediate and picks up the sporozoite from the intermediate, thus completing the life cycle.
  96. Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite infects virtually all __________ (______are the definitive host). It is estimated that up to __% of people possess circulating antibodies to T. gondii worldwide, implying either active parasite infection or prior exposure.
    • warm-blooded vertebrates
    • cats
    • 33%
  97. ____________, the etiology that produces amebic dysentery in humans may also produce sporadic infections in dogs. These infections are usually the result of human associations
    Entamoeba histolytica
  98. _________ is the ciliated protozoan found occasionally in the cecum and colon of dogs. It is more intimately associated with ____(animal)
    • Balantidium coli
    • pigs
  99. Cryptosporidium – this parasite is found in the __________ of dogs and cats
    small intestines
  100. List 5 zoonotic parasites
    visceral larvae migrans, cutaneous larvae migrans, Toxoplasmosis, Cryptosporidium, Strongyloides stercoralis
  101. Pathogenic Protozoa of Dogs and Cats
    The Common Diseases:
    • Feces: Isospora oocyst, Toxoplasma oocysts, Giardia, Trichomonas, Entamoeba histolytica.
    • Blood: Babesia canis, Trypanosome cruzi, Haemobartonella
    • Tissues: Toxoplasma cysts and Entamoeba histolytica
    • Intestines: Isospora, Toxoplasma and Entamoeba
    • The Common Diseases: Coccidiosis – most common, Giardiasis, Intestinal Trichomonosis, Babesiosis, and Haemobartonellosis.
  102. Pathogenic Protozoa of Cattle
    Reproductive Tract: 
    Common Protozoan Diseases: 
    • Feces: Eimeria
    • Blood: Anaplasma marginale, A. centrale
    • Reproductive Tract: Trichomonas fetus
    • Tissues: Toxoplasma cysts
    • Intestines: Eimeria
    • Common Protozoan Diseases: Coccidiosis, Anaplasmosis, and Genital Trichomonosis
  103. Pathogenic Protozoa of Sheep & Goats
    Common Protozoal Diseases: 
    • Feces: Eimeria
    • Tissues: Toxoplasma cysts
    • Intestinal: Eimeria
    • Common Protozoal Diseases: Coccidiosis
  104. Pathogenic Protozoa of Horses
    Common Protozoal Diseases: 
    • Feces: Trichomonas equi
    • Blood: Babesia caballi and equi
    • Common Protozoal Diseases: Intestinal trichomonosis and Babesiosis.
  105. What is the protozoan that is unique to pigs that affects the blood? Nickname?
    Eperythrozoon suis – nickname epi - unique to swine
  106. Pathogenic Protozoa of Poultry have more protozoan pathogens that are not shared with other animals.
    Crop Content: 
    Intestinal Contents: 
    Cecal Contents: 
    Intestines & Cecal: 
    Common Protozoal Diseases:
    • Crop Content: Trichomonas
    • Intestinal Contents: Eimeria and Hexamita
    • Cecal Contents: Histomonas and Eimeria
    • Blood: Leucocytozoon and Haemoproteus
    • Tissues: Histomonas (liver) & Toxoplasma cysts
    • Intestines & Cecal: Eimeria and Histomonas
    • Common Protozoal Diseases: Coccidiosis, Histomoniasis, Crop Trichomonosis, Hexamitosis, and Leucocytozoonosis.
  107. Describe the Dipylidium Life Cycle 
    • All are Indirect
    • 1. Once the proglottids are passed, the Onchospheres are released. 
    • 2. Flea or lice ingest the eggs.  Eggs hatch and migrate to body cavity.
    • 3. The tapeworm develops into a cysticercoid stage with development of the scolex. (1 –2 days) 
    • 4. Dog consumes the fleas/lice and the cysticercoid molts in the dogs intestines.
    • 5. Mature tape develops in the intestines and starts releasing eggs (2-3 weeks later).
  108. Describe the Life Cycles of Taenia
    • All Are Indirect
    • 1. Eggs are laid in contaminated soil.
    • 2. Eggs is consumed by intermediate vertebrate host.
    • 3. Egg hatches in the intermediate host and attaches hexacanth embryos which are the first stage larvae. The embryos move to organs and develops scolices.
    • 4. In the organ (liver) embryo differentiates to 2nd stage.
    • 5. The definitive host now eats the intermediate.
    • 6. The scolices attaches to intestinal wall. Maturing begins