N. /慈善家/lover of mankind; doer of good. In his role as philanthropist and public benefactor, John D. Rocke¬feller, Sr., donated millions to charity; as an individual, how¬ever, he was a tight-fisted old man.
N. /俗气的人，无教养的人；心胸狭窄的人/narrow-minded person, uncultured and exclu¬sively interested in material gain. We need more men of cul¬ture and enlightenment; we have too many philistines among us.
N. /语言学/study of language. The professor of philology advocated the use of Esperanto as an international lan¬guage.
ADJ. /冷静的；平静的；不易被激起的/calm; not easily disturbed. The nurse was a cheerful but phlegmatic person, unexcited in the face of sudden emergencies.
N. /恐怖/morbid fear. Her fear of flying was more than mere nervousness; it was a real phobia.
N. /凤凰（象征不死和重生、涅磐）/symbol of immortality or rebirth. Like the leg¬endary phoenix rising from its ashes, the city of San Fran¬cisco rose again after its destruction during the 1906 earth¬quake.
N. /门；语群/major class of plants; primary branch of animal kingdom; division. In sorting out her hundreds of packets of seeds, Katya decided to file them by phylum.
ADJ. /生理学的/pertaining to the science of the function of living organisms. To understand this disease fully, we must examine not only its physiological aspects but also its psychological elements.
ADJ. /以歹徒为题材的文学作品的/pertaining to rogues in literature. Tom Jones has been hailed as one of the best picaresque nov¬els in the English language.
ADJ. /花斑的；斑驳的/mottled; spotted. You should be able to iden¬tify Polka Dot in this race; it is the only piebald horse run¬ning.
ADV. /一次一个的，逐个的；渐渐的；碎的/one piece at a time; gradually. Tolstoy's War and Peace is too huge to finish in one sitting; I'll have to read it piecemeal.
ADJ. /杂色的；斑驳的/variegated; multicolored. The Pied Piper of Hamelin got his name from the multicolored clothing he wore.
N. /虔诚；孝行/religious devotion; godliness. The nuns in the con¬vent were noted for their piety; they spent their days in wor¬ship and prayer. Pious,ADJ.
N. /色素/coloring matter. Van Gogh mixed various pig¬ments with linseed oil to create his paints.
V. /掠夺/plunder. The enemy pillaged the quiet village and left it in ruins.
V. /消瘦，憔悴；渴望；松树/languish, decline; long for, yearn. Though she tried to be happy living with Clara in the city, Heidi pined for the mountains and for her gruff but loving grandfather.
N. /顶尖；顶点/peak. We could see the morning sunlight illu¬minate the pinnacle while the rest of the mountain lay in shadow.
ADJ. /尽职的；虔诚的/devout; religious. The challenge for church people today is how to be pious in the best sense, that is, to be devout without becoming hypocritical or sanctimonious. piety, N.
ADJ. /开胃的；辛辣的；刺激的；淘气顽皮的/pleasantly tart-tasting; stimulating. The piquant sauce added to our enjoyment of the meal. piquancy, N.
N. /愤怒；不满/irritation; resentment. She showed her pique at her loss by refusing to appear with the other contestants at the end of the competition. alsoV.
V. /激起，煽动；激怒/provoke or arouse; annoy. "I know something you don't know," said Lucy, trying to pique Ethel's interest.
N. /缺陷/hidden danger; concealed trap. Her parents warned young Sophie against the many pitfalls that lay in wait for her in the dangerous big city.
ADJ. /精炼的；抓住灵魂的/concise; meaningful; substantial; meaty. While other girls might have gone on and on about how uncool Elton was, Liz summed it up in one pithy remark: "He's bogus!"
N. /微薄的薪水/a small allowance or wage. He could not live on the pittance he received as a pension and had to look for an additional source of revenue.
ADJ. /关键的/crucial; key; vital. The new "smart weapons" technology played a pivotal role in the quick resolution of the war with Iraq.
V. /安抚/pacify; conciliate. The store manager tried to placate the angry customer, offering to replace the dam¬aged merchandise or to give back her money right away.
N. /安慰剂/harmless substance prescribed as a dummy pill. In a controlled experiment, fifty volunteers were given aspirin tablets; the control group received only placebos.
ADJ. /平静的/peaceful; calm. After his vacation in this placid section, he felt soothed and rested.
N. /剽窃/theft of another's ideas or writings passed off as original. The editor recognized the plagiarism and rebuked the culprit who had presented the manuscript as original.
V. /剽窃/steal another's ideas and pass them off as one's own. The teacher could tell that the student had pla¬giarized parts of his essay; she could recognize whole paragraphs straight from Barron's Book Notes.
ADJ. /哀伤的/mournful. The dove has a plaintive and melancholy call.
N. /塑性/ability to be molded. When clay dries out, it loses its plasticity and becomes less malleable.
N. /陈词滥调/trite remark; commonplace statement. In giving advice to his son, old Polonius expressed himself only in platitudes; every word out of his mouth was a commonplace.
N. /喝彩/enthusiastically worded approval; round of applause. The theatrical company reprinted the plaudits of the critics in its advertisements. plauditory,ADJ.
ADJ. /似是而非的/having a show of truth but open to doubt; specious. Your mother made you stay home from school because she needed you to program the VCR? I'm sorry, you'll have to come up with a more plausible excuse than that.
N. /充分，富足/abundance; completeness. Looking in the pantry, we admired the plenitude of fruits and pickles we had preserved during the summer.
N. /过剩；过多/excess; overabundance. She offered a plethora of excuses for her shortcomings.
ADJ. /圆滑的；柔韧的；易弯曲的/flexible; yielding; adaptable. In remodeling the bathroom, we have replaced all the old, rigid lead pipes with new, pliable copper tubing.
ADJ. /顺从的/flexible; easily influenced. Pinocchio's disposi¬tion was pliant, he was like putty in his tempters' hands.
N. /情况，状况；困境/condition, state (especially a bad state or condi¬tion); predicament. Many people feel that the federal gov¬ernment should do more to alleviate the plight of the homeless. Loggers, unmoved by the plight of the spotted owl, plan to continue logging whether or not they ruin the owl's habitat.
ADJ. /垂直；铅锤；用铅锤量/checking perpendicularity; vertical. Before hanging wallpaper it is advisable to drop a plumb line from the ceiling as a guide. also N. andV.
N. /鸟类的羽毛/feathers of a bird. Bird watchers identify differ¬ent species of bird by their characteristic songs and dis¬tinctive plumage.
V. /垂直落下/fall sharply. Stock prices plummeted as Wall Street reacted to the crisis in the economy.
N. /富豪统治/society ruled by the wealthy. From the way the government caters to the rich, you might think our soci¬ety is a plutocracy rather than a democracy.
N. /足病医生/doctor who treats ailments of the feet. He consulted a podiatrist about his fallen arches.
N. /指挥台；检阅台/pedestal; raised platform. The audience applauded as the conductor made his way to the podium.
N. /强烈的；感人的；尖锐的/quality of being deeply moving; keenness of emotion. Watching the tearful reunion of the long-separated mother and child, the social worker was touched by the poignancy of the scene. poignant,ADJ.
V. /极化；分化；两极分化/split into opposite extremes or camps. The abortion issue has polarized the country into pro-choice and anti-abortion camps. polarization, N.
ADJ. /辩论的，好辩的/aggressive in verbal attack; disputatious. Lexy was a master of polemical rhetoric; she should have worn a T-shirt with the slogan "Born to Debate."
ADJ. /精明的；明智的；诡计多端的；谨慎的/expedient; prudent; well advised. Even though he was disappointed by the size of the bonus he was offered, he did not think it politic to refuse it.
N. /多配偶/one who has more than one spouse at a time. He was arrested as a polygamist when his two wives filed complaints about him.
ADJ. /多语言/speaking several languages. New York City is a polyglot community because of the thousands of immi¬grants who settle there.
N. /夸大，华丽；浮夸；自大/self-important behavior; acting like a stuffed shirt. Although the commencement speaker had some good things to say, we had to laugh at his pomposity and general air of parading his own dignity. POMPOUS,ADJ.
ADJ. /沉重的；笨重的；呆板的；冗长的/weighty; unwieldy. His humor lacked the light touch; his jokes were always ponderous.
ADJ. /教皇的；主教的/pertaining to a bishop or pope; pompous or pretentious. From his earliest days at the seminary, John seemed destined for a high pontifical office. However, he sounded so pompous when he pontificated that he never was chosen pontiff after all.
V. /沉思；考察；深思熟虑；小孔，细口/study industriously; ponder; scrutinize. Deter¬mined to become a physician, Beth spent hours poring over her anatomy text.
ADJ. /筛子似的/full of pores; like a sieve. Dancers like to wear porous clothing because it allows the ready passage of water and air.
V. /预示/foretell; presage. The king did not know what these omens might portend and asked his soothsayers to interpret them.
N. /征兆/sign; omen; forewarning. He regarded the black cloud as a portent of evil.
ADJ. /健壮的；肥胖的；魁梧的/stately; stout. The overweight gentleman was referred to as portly by the polite salesclerk.
N. /装模作样的人；邯郸学步/person who pretends to be sophisticated, ele¬gant, etc., to impress others. Some thought Salvador Dali was a brilliant painter; others dismissed him as a poseur.
N. /子孙；后裔/descendants; future generations. We hope to leave a better world to posterity.
ADJ. /身后的；遗腹的（书出版于作者死后，孩子生于父亲死后）/after death (as of child born after father's death or book published after author's death). The critics ignored his works during his lifetime; it was only after the posthumous publication of his last novel that they recog¬nized his great talent.
N. /前提；基于的假定/essential premise; underlying assumption. The basic postulate of democracy, set forth in the Declara¬tion of Independence, is that all men are created equal.
ADJ. /可饮用的/suitable for drinking. The recent drought in the Middle Atlantic states has emphasized the need for exten¬sive research in ways of making sea water potable. also N.
ADJ. /有效的/powerful; persuasive; greatly influential. Look¬ing at the expiration date on the cough syrup bottle, we wondered whether the medication would still be potent. potency, N.
N. /当权者/monarch; sovereign. The potentate spent more time at Monte Carlo than he did at home on his throne.
ADJ. /潜在的/expressing possibility; latent. This juvenile delinquent is a potential murderer. also N.
N. /剂量/dose (of liquid). Tristan and Isolde drink a love potion in the first act of the opera.
ADJ. /可行的/feasible. The board of directors decided that the plan was practicable and agreed to undertake the project.
ADJ. /有用的；经验的；实践证明的/based on experience; useful. He was a practical man, opposed to theory.
N. /从业者/someone engaged in a profession (law, medicine). In need of a hip replacement, Carl sought a practitioner with considerable experience performing this particular surgery.
ADJ. /实际的；注重实效的/practical (as opposed to idealistic); con¬cerned with the practical worth or impact of something. This coming trip to France should provide me with a pragmatic test of the value of my conversational French class.
N. /爱管闲事的人；实用主义者/practical person. No pragmatist enjoys becoming involved in a game he can never win.
N. /胡闹；打扮/mischievous trick. Is tipping over garbage cans on Halloween merely a childish prank, or is it vandalism?
V. /空谈/speak foolishly; boast idly. Let us not prate about our good qualities; rather, let our virtues speak for them¬selves.
V. /闲聊；胡说；废话；唠叨/babble. Baby John prattled on and on about the cats and his ball and the Cookie Monster.
N. /导言；介绍词/introductory statement. In the Preamble to the Constitution, the purpose of the document is set forth.
ADJ. /不确定的；冒风险/uncertain; risky. Saying the stock would be a precarious investment, the broker advised her client against purchasing it.
N. /先例/something preceding in time that may be used as an authority or guide for future action. If I buy you a car for your sixteenth birthday, your brothers will want me to buy them cars when they turn sixteen, too; I can't afford to set such an expensive precedent. The law professor asked Jill to state which famous case served as a precedent for the court's decision in Brown ll.