Med Terms 9

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Med Terms 9
2013-06-19 15:45:47
medical terminology lymphatic immune system

Lesson 9
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  1. Lymph originates from the...
    • Blood.
    • Is the fluid that filters out of capillaries into the spaces between cells
    • Fluid that surrounds body cells is called interstitial fluid
  2. Function of Lymphatic & Immune System
    Transport proteins & fluids (leaked out from capillaries) back to the bloodstream via veins

    Absorb fats from the small intestine & transport them to the bloodstream

    • Defend the body against foreign organisms
    • LYMPHOCYTES produce antibodies
    • MONOCYTES attack foreign cells & organisms (i.e. bacteria, viruses)
  3. Antibody (Ab)
    Protein produced by B cell lymphocytes to destroy antigens; provides immunity against specific organisms
  4. Antigen (Ag)
    Substance that the body recognizes as foreign; provokes an immune response
  5. Spleen
    • MACROPHAGES destroy aging Erthrocytes
    • Microorganisms & other foreign materials are filtered from the blood
    • B CELLS are activated by antigens to produce antibodies 
    • T CELLS are activated to attach foreign materials
  6. Thymus
    Important in developing an effective immune system in childhood
  7. Immune System
    Defends the body against ANTIGENS i.e. toxins, bacterial proteins, foreign RBCs

    Include WBCs (Neutrophils, Monocytes, macrophages) that are macrophages found in tissues

    Lympoid organs (i.e. lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland) & their products (lymphocytes & antibodies)
  8. Natural Immunity
    Genetic predisposition in the body at birth (i.e. phagocytes, macrophages, etc.)
  9. Acquired/Adaptive Immunity
    • Development of antibodies against antigens 
    • ACTIVE (having an infection, vaccination, transfer of immune cells from a donor) vs. PASSIVE (antitoxins, immunoglobins, maternal antibodies)
  10. Pathogen
    Any virus, microorgansim, or other substance that causes disease
  11. Phagocytosis
    Cellular process of eating & destroying substances, usually by the Neutrophils & Macrophages
  12. Lymph/o
  13. Lymphaden/o
    Lymph Node (gland)
  14. Immun/o
    Protection, immune
  15. Splen/o
  16. Thym/o
    Thymus Gland
  17. Tox/o
  18. Ana-
    Again, anew
  19. -edema
  20. -phylaxis
  21. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease
    • Group of rare, sometimes fatal, congenital disorders characterized by little or no immune response
    • Defect in B- and T-lymphocytes
    • Susceptible to recurrent infections 
    • "bubble boy" disease
    • Treatments: Bone marrow & Stem cell transplantation
  22. Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease (AIDs)
    • Caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 
    • Suppression of immune system
    • Marked by opportunistic infections, secondary neoplasms & neurologic problems
    • Kaposi sarcoma, lymphoma
    • NO CURE
    • Medications can dramatically slow the progression of the disease
  23. Hypersensitivity- Allergy
    • Abnormal hypersensitivity acquired by exposure to an antigen
    • Sensitized person (previously exposed to an allergen) reacts to a subsequent exposure
    • Reaction can vary from mild to severe symptoms (anaphylaxis)
  24. Lymphoma
    • Malignant tumor of lymph nodes & lymph tissue
    • Hodgkin lymphoma- Malignant tumor of the lymphoid tissue in the spleen & lymph nodes
    • Diagnosis made by identification of Reed-Sternberg cell in lymph nodes 
    • HIGH CURE RATE- Chemotherapy, radiation, stem cell transplant
  25. Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas
    • Tumors develop from lymphocytes, MORE COMMON than Hodgkin lymphoma
    • Follicular lymphoma (collections of small lymphocytes in a follicle or nodule arrangement)
    • Large cell lymphoma- large lymphocytes that infiltrate nodes & tissues
  26. Multiple Myeloma
    • Malignant tumor of bone marrow cells
    • Composed of PLASMA CELLS
    • High levels of one of the specific immunoglobulins (usually IgG)
    • Symptoms- Hypercalcemia, Renal failure, Fatigue, Bone damage & fractures
  27. Thymoma
    • Malignancy of thymus gland- grows SLOWLY; rarely spread beyond the thymus
    • Patients will also often have an autoimmune disorder (myasthemia gravis, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis)
  28. Edema
    Accumulation of excess fluid in intercellular spaces; can be caused by blockage of lymph vessels
  29. Pitting Edema
    Edema that retains an indentation of a finger pressed firmly on the skin
  30. Elephantiasis
    Enlargement of the lower extremities due to blockage of lymph vessels commonly caused by filarial worms (filariae- small parasitic worms that are transmitted by mosquitoes; they invade tissues as embryos & block lymph vessels as they grow)
  31. Immunization, Vaccination
    Administration of a weakened or killed pathogen, or a protein of a pathogen, to cause the immune system to create antibodies for future protection
  32. Immunosuppression
    Use of chemotherapy or immunosuppressant drugs to interfere with immune responses; usually prescribed for autoimmune disorders
  33. Tolerance
    Recognition & acceptance of the body's own antigens as self
  34. Autoimmunity
    Pertaining to one's immune system attacking its own tissues or cells
  35. Hypersensitive
    Condition of excessive response or an exaggerated sensitivity to a stimulus
  36. Rejection
    Immunologic response of incompatibility to a transplanted organ or tissue
  37. Systemic
    Pertaining to the body as a whole
  38. Virulent
    Denotes an extremely toxic pathogen
  39. Immunoelectrophoresis
    Tests that measures immunoglobulins in the blood
  40. ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay)
    Screening test for HIV antibodies in the blood
  41. Western Blot
    Confirmatory test for HIV antibodies