Diagnostic tests and Electrolytes

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abutler5
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224396
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Diagnostic tests and Electrolytes
Updated:
2013-06-19 17:46:23
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Exam
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Mrs. Wright Exam
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  1. When caring for a patient with
    bacterial meningitis which lab results would indicate a left shift in the
    differential?
    • -        
    • Elevation
    • in the neutrophils
  2. Which lab value would most likely
    indicate a viral infection?
    • -        
    • Elevated
    • lymphocytes ( viral = right shift)
  3. Which nursing diagnosis should be
    included in a plan of care of a patient with low hemoglobin levels?
    • -        
    • Alteration
    • in tissue perfusion
  4. What signs would the patient exhibit
    who has a low total protein level?
    • -        
    • Edema
  5. What is an estimated glomerular
    filtration rate?
  6. A GFR is a test that evaluates the kidney function, anything below 60 mL/hour =
    • renal impairment.  Calculated using creatinine
    • levels and a formula
  7. What patient teaching should be
    completed before a patient goes for a MRI test?
    • -        
    • Tell
    • them that there will be limited space within the machine, also there will be a
    • loud clanging noise throughout the test

    • -        
    • No
    • metals

    • -        
    • Must
    • be able to follow directions
  8. Which assessments by the nurse is the
    most important when caring for a patient going to a CT scan test with dye?
    • -        
    • If
    • the patient is allergic to the dye/contrast medium

    • -        
    • Also
    • the patients kidney function
  9. What nursing action should be
    included in the plan of care with a patient who is post femoral arteriogram?
    • -        
    • Pressure
    • must be maintained at the insertion site

    • -        
    • Monitoring
    • distal pulses

    • -        
    • Patient
    • must be on bedrest for 6-8 hours with the affected leg straight
  10. What test would be ordered to
    identify abnormal electrical heart conduction?
    • -        
    • EKG:
    • the test involves attaching 10 electrodes to the patient’s chest and
    • extremities to measure electrical impulses of the heart; looking for
    • abnormalities of electrical conduction
  11. What instructions would the nurse give
    to a patient who is going to receive a baseline EKG?
    • -        
    • Only
    • takes 10 – 15 mins

    • -        
    • No
    • jewelry

    • -        
    • Have
    • to wear a gown

    • -        
    • Nurse
    • collects med lists and asks if the patient is having any cardiac symptoms
  12. What action should be taken when a
    patient with telemetry unit what to take a shower?
    • -        
    • Must
    • call CMR, and left them know that your will be removing the unit for a shower
  13. What instructions would the nurse
    give a patient wearing a holter monitor?
    • -        
    • Keep
    • a diary of the activities that you perform, such as walking or taking meds

    • -        
    • If
    • they have any symptoms they should press the event button
  14. What instructions would the nurse give
    a patient who is going for a EEG?
    • -        
    • Make
    • sure you wash your hair, and keep it free from all gels and hair spray
  15. What position should the nurse assist
    the patient to assume when preparing for a paracentesis?
    • -        
    • Semi
    • – fowlers
  16. Which medications should the patient
    avoid when preparing for a bone marrow aspirations?
    • -        
    • Not
    • the take anything with aspirin (NSAIDS)
  17. What factor is dependent on the
    movement of fluid from ECF to ICF compartments?
    • -        
    • Water
    • intake
  18. What does third spacing mean?
    • -        
    • It’s
    • a fluid shift; low blood volume = low blood pressure = increase in fluid volume
    • in interstitial spaces causing edema
  19. What types of patients are at risk
    for electrolyte imbalance?
    • -        
    • Blood
    • loss= water loss as well as solid blood components (electrolytes, proteins,
    • RBC, WBC, thrombocytes)
  20. You are caring for a patient with
    nausea, vomiting and diarrhea and is currently NPO, family wants to know why?
    • -        
    • To
    • give the bowel a rest, patient might not be able to absorb the fluid through
    • the GI tract
  21. Have to prioritize care of several patients,
    which to assess first?
    • -        
    • Infants,
    • small children, frail elders and patients with CHF and renal failure are more
    • susceptible to fluid overload
  22. What would cause a low BUN level?
    • -        
    • Hemodilution
  23. What signs and symptoms would you be
    most concerned about when caring for a patient taking Lasix?
    • -        
    • Hypokalemia
    • (low K)

    • -        
    • Cramping,
    • muscle spasm, weakness

    • -        
    • Arrhymias
  24. What foods would you encourage the patient
    to eat if they were on Lasix?
    • -        
    • Bananas,
    • apricots, avocados, sweet and baked potatoes, halibut, oranges, white beans and
    • yougurt
  25. What does a osmotic diuretic
    medication do?
    • -        
    • Increase
    • osmolarity of the blood so that water will be pulled out of the interstitial spaces
    • into the intravascular space

    • -        
    • Lose
    • water along with electrolytes (K and Na)
  26. What is the lab value for Na levels
    in the body?
    • -        
    • 135
    • – 145 mEq/L
  27. Patients that need to limit their sodium
    intake to 1500 mg/day?
    • -        
    • African
    • Americans

    • -        
    • People
    • 40 yrs. +

    • -        
    • People
    • with hypertension and HF
  28. What IV fluids would be included in
    the treatment plan of a patient suffering from hyponatremia?
    • -        
    • Isotonic
    • IV infusion of 0.9 NaCl or LR
  29. What results would you consider
    effective when giving a patient Kayexalate?
    • -        
    • How
    • many bowel movements the patient has had
  30. You just admitted a patient with
    hypercalcemia related to cancer. The nurse would be concerned if the patient
    was taking what kind of medicine?
    • -        
    • Digitalis;
    • increase strength of heart contractions, and slows the pulse and HR, can lead
    • to toxicity

    • Monitor for symptoms of
    • toxicity: bradycardia, visual disturbances
  31. Which additional electrolyte
    imbalance would patient with hypercalcemia be at risk for?
    • -        
    • Increased
    • calcium = decreased magnesium and decrease phosphorus
  32. Which assessments would the nurse be
    looking for when admitting a patient with alkalosis?
    • -        
    • Slow
    • respiratory rate ( allows CO2 to remain in the blood)
  33. What would be contributing cause of
    low calcium deficiency?
    • -        
    • Lack
    • of Vitamin D absorbtion
  34. What spaces contain 2/3 of the body
    fluids?
    • -        
    • Intracellular
    • spaces
  35. What are the nursing responsibilities
    for most diagnostic tests:
    • -        
    • Making
    • sure consent was signed

    • -        
    • Assessing
    • allergies

    • -        
    • Knowing
    • when to hold fluids or foods

    • -        
    • Telling
    • patient what to expect

    • -        
    • Notify
    • Dr. about normal

    • -        
    • Monitor
    • for complications

    • -        
    • Supporting
    • patient

    • -        
    • Assist
    • examiner

    • -        
    • Necessary
    • nursing care post-op
  36. Which diagnostic procedures may be
    ordered for a patient with a suspected brain tumor?
    • -        
    • MRI,
    • EEG, Lumbar puncture
  37. Which type of interventions would be
    included with a patient admitted with fluid volume overload?
    • -        
    • Fluid
    • restrictions

    • -        
    • Low
    • sodium diet

    • -        
    • Monitor
    • I & O

    • -        
    • Daily
    • weights
  38. Name 4 signs of fluid volume excess:
    • -        
    • Edema

    • -        
    • Increase
    • weight

    • -        
    • Crackles
    • in the lungs (RR above 26)

    • -        
    • Increase
    • blood pressure
  39. Chest X Ray
    a radiographic picture of the upper torso
  40. CBC
    • complete blood count
    • measures RBC, WBC, platelets (thrombocytes), hemoglobin and hematocrit in the blood
  41. platelets
    measures the number of thrombocytes that aid in the blood clotting process to prevent hemorrhage
  42. WBC
    measures the number of infection fighting leukocytes in the blood
  43. H&H
    Hemoglobin and hematocrit
  44. Hemoglobin
    measures the amount of iron pigment in the blood
  45. hematocrit
    measures the percentage of RBC compared to te whole volume of blood

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