microbiology

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Author:
mattnjaneal
ID:
224408
Filename:
microbiology
Updated:
2013-06-19 20:09:07
Tags:
microbe host interactions
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Description:
chapter 13
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  1. normal flora
    • microflora, microbiota
    • MO that colonize on/in body
  2. symbiosis
    two populations living together
  3. commensalism
    MO benefits and host is unharmed
  4. function of normal flora
    protection - part of first line of defense; form microbial barrier
  5. pathogenicity
    ability to harm a host
  6. pathogen
    any microorganism that can cause disease
  7. 1' (primary) pathogen
    cause disease in a healthy host
  8. 2' (secondary) pathogens
    cause opportunisitic infections in compromised host
  9. virulence
    degree of pathogenicity
  10. enzymes as a virulence factor
    • hyaluronidase and collagenase: breaks down connective tissue; helps pathogen to be invasive
    • hemolysins: RBC lysis
    • streptokinase: dissolves clots
    • coagulase: clot
  11. toxins as a virulence factor
    • exotoxins: secreted by MO, neurotoxin
    • endotoxins: released when MO destroyed; LPS - lipid A
    • toxemia: toxin in blood
  12. incubation
    • MO has breached barrier(s)
    • growing and multiplying
    • time varies
  13. prodromal phase
    • generic symptoms
    • "coming down" with something
    • fever, malaise, headache, etc
  14. ACME Period
    • peak
    • actue stages of disease
    • characteristic symptoms appear
    • clinical disease - "classic" symptoms
    • subclinical disease - may be mild and unnoticed
  15. period of decline
    • signs (objective) and symptoms (subjective)
    • sweating is very common
    • "on the mend"
  16. convalescence
    • body returning to "normal"
    • immune response at peak
  17. portal of entry
    site where pathogen enters host
  18. infectious dose
    • varies with pathogens
    • ex: shigella <10 cells; Ecoli 100,000 cells; cryptosporidium about 10 cysts
    • invasiveness of the MO
  19. transmission: direct methods
    • direct methods: close or personal contact with an infected individual
    • personal: kissing, hand shaking, contact w/ body fluids, includes STD's
    • droplets and aerosols: coughs or sneezes
  20. transmission: indirect methods
    • consumption: food or water
    • fomites: contact contaminated objects in environment
    • vectors: animal transmit
  21. 2 types of vectors
    • mechanical: cockroaches and houseflies, transport only
    • biological vectors: part of pathogen life cycle; typicall biting insects
  22. reservoirs
    • splaces where pathogens are maintained as a source of infection
    • living: animals, zoonosis
    • non living: soil, water
  23. diseases
    clinical condition that is the result of infection
  24. communicable
    • spreads from host to host
    • contagious: easily transmitted
  25. non-communicable
    • environment or own microflora
    • ex: tetanus
  26. sporadic incidence
    a few scattered cases
  27. endemic incidence
    stable frequency in a population or area
  28. epidemic incidence
    at a greater frequency than projection
  29. pandemic
    • worldwide
    • more than one continent
    • ex: AIDS
  30. signs
    • objective assessment
    • ex: inflammation or blood signs
  31. leukopenia
    decreased WBC count
  32. leukocytosis
    increased WBC count
  33. septicemia
    MO in blood
  34. symptoms
    • subjective
    • reported by patient

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