Organic Chemistry

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katylynn1204
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224415
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Organic Chemistry
Updated:
2013-06-19 22:04:42
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organic chemistry
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definitions used in organic chemistry
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  1. Elements
    Fundamental particles of nature that cannot be broken down or destroyed.  Displayed on periodic table of elements.
  2. Atom
    Smallest amount of an element that can exist.
  3. Subatomic particles
    • Protons - p+ (in the nucleus)
    • Neutrons - n0 (in the nucleus)
    • Electrons e-
  4. Bohr atom
    model for the atom.  shows electrons occupying different energy levels within the atom.  These different energy levels are called shells.
  5. Orbitals
    Hold between zero to two electrons.  have a shell # and subshell designation

    Ex: 2s, 3p, 5d orbitals
  6. s-block
    region where occupying electrons fall into 's' type orbitals
  7. p - block
    region where occupying electrons fall into 'p' type orbitals
  8. electron configuration
    shows electrons occupying subshells at various possible energy levels.

    • Ground state carbon: 1s22s22p2
    • Ground state sodium: 1s22s22p63s1
  9. valence electrons
    electrons existing within the top energy shell on an atom
  10. lewis symbol
    shows valence electrons as dots about an element.
  11. metal
    elements lying to the left of the metalloids on the periodic table
  12. non-metals
    elements lying to the right of the metalloids on the periodic table
  13. ions
    charged particles.  formed by either gaining or losing electrons to become negatively or positively charged particles
  14. cation
    positive ions
  15. anion
    negative ions
  16. ionic bond
    a bond between cations and anions formed by an electrostatic attraction between particles of opposite charge.
  17. ionic compound
    a compound held together through only ionic bonds.

    Ex: NaCl
  18. covalent bond
    a bond formed between atoms through the overlapping of orbitals to share valence electrons
  19. covalent compound
    a compound held together through only covalent bonds.

    Ex: CO2
  20. VSEPR
    a method to predict the shapes of molecules and bond angles formed with designation of three atoms.
  21. Charge cloud
    a bonding atom or lone pair of electrons used in VSEPR theory
  22. electronegativity
    the ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself in a chemical bond.  scale runs 0-4.0
  23. polar covalent bond
    a bond formed through the uneven sharing of electrons resulting in a positive and negative region between bonding atoms.
  24. non-polar covalent bond
    a bond formed through the even sharing of electrons with no resulting positive or negative regions between bonding atoms.
  25. polar molecule
    a molecule that is electrically unsymmetrical causing it to be oppositely charged in different regions
  26. non-polar molecule
    a molecule that is electrically symmetrical.  the centers of positive and negative charge will coincide.
  27. formal charge
    a mathematical method to assign charge to atoms in covalent compounds.

    valence electrons - 1/2 shared electrons - electrons in lone pairs
  28. balancing equations
    add multipliers to chemicals in equations to show the ratios in which they are consumed and produced.  balanced equations will have conservation of mass.
  29. acid
    a compound that acts as a proton donor. (H+ donor)
  30. base
    a compound that acts as a proton acceptor (H+ acceptor)
  31. organic matter 1800
    living things (biological origin: flora, forna, food, us)
  32. vital force
    an indefinable characteristic that separated living organisms and materials derived from living organisms from inanimate inorganic matter
  33. inorganic matter 1800
    geological origin: minerals, rock, sea, air
  34. organic chemistry
    huge field of chemistry.  more than 30 million compounds to date

    carbon atoms can bond strongly to almost all other elements in the periodic table.

    carbon atoms can form long carbon - carbon chains or rings with itself to give a stable carbon skeleton.  a single carbon skeleton gives rise to many possible organic compounds.
  35. hydrocarbons
    compounds made only from the elements carbon and hydrogen

    Ex: CH4, C2H6, C2H2
  36. saturated hydrocarbons
    compounds that contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms per the number of carbon present.

    CnH2n+2

    Ex: C2H6
  37. unsaturated hydrocarbons
    compounds that do not contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms per the number of carbon present.  will have a double or triple bond.

    Ex: C2H2
  38. alkanes
    saturated hydrocarbons which contain only carbon-carbon single bonds
  39. structural formula
    shows all atoms and bonds present in the molecule
  40. condensed structure
    shows groups of atoms about each carbon in an individual chain
  41. line-bond angle format
    shows individual carbon atoms as intersections or endpoints of line segments.  all hydrogen atoms are assumed in a line-bond structure
  42. properties of alkanes
    • 1. odorless or mild odor, colorless and tasteless.
    • 2. non-polar molecules
    • 3. for liquids, density range is from 0.6-0.8 (g/mL)
    • 4. not water soluble. (like dissolves like)
    • 5. attracted to each other through London Dispersion Forces
    • 6. as molecular weight increases, their melting and boiling points also increase
    • 7. flammable (combustion reaction)
    • 8. limited reactivity
  43. London dispersion forces
    an intermolecular forces of attraction caused by the formation of temporary dipoles
  44. alkanes - aliphatic hydrocarbons
    physical properties resemble that of fats and oils (saturated and big)
  45. isomers
    different compounds with the same formula
  46. conformational isomers (conformers)
    molecules with the same formula and connectivity of atoms but different spatial arrangement allowed through free rotation.  (alkanes possess free rotation along their carbon - carbon axis)
  47. constitutional isomers
    molecules with the same formula but a different connectivity of atoms or bonding arrangement.  (cannot simply rotate into each other as with conformational isomers)
  48. skeletal isomers
    molecules with the same formula but different connectivity of their carbon framework
  49. functional isomers
    different bonding groups of atoms attached along a carbon backbone.
  50. geometric isomers
    molecules with the same formula and connectivity of atoms but different spatial arrangement which are locked or permanent.  (this arrangement cannot be changed without breaking chemical bonds)
  51. stereoisomers
    non-superimposable mirror image molecules which contain chiral center
  52. dipole
    a molecule that is electrically unsymmetrical causing it to be oppositely charged at two points.  only applies to convalently bonded atoms.
  53. methane
    CH4
  54. ethane
    CH3CH3
  55. Propane
    CH3CH2CH3
  56. butane
    CH3CH2CH2CH3
  57. pentane
    CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3
  58. hexane
    CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
  59. heptane
    CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
  60. octane
    CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
  61. nonane
    CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
  62. decane
    CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
  63. haloalkanes
    a class of organic compound where one or more alkane-hydrogen atoms has been replaced with a group 7A halogen.  Halogens can be: F, Cl, Br, or I.

    • 1. moderately polar
    • 2. good solvents and aerosol propellants
    • 3. CFC's (used in refrigerator and air conditioner)
    • 4. non-toxic, non-flammable, non-corrosive
    • 5. can damage earth's ozone layer

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