BUSINESS MANAGEMENT CHAPTER 4

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laurenjudd
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224423
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BUSINESS MANAGEMENT CHAPTER 4
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2013-06-26 02:06:17
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business management
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chapter 4
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  1. LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT
    • senior
    • the level of management involved in the strategic planning and decision making of an organisation
    • middle
    • translates corporate objectives into specific projects, monitors progress of projects and supervises front - line managers
    • front-line
    • lowest level of managers in the hierarchy; responsible for the work of operating employees only and does not supervise other managers - only subordinates
  2. DIVISION OF LABOUR
    division of labour refers to the segmentation and coordination of activity that is required to ensure that organisational goals are met
  3. HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE
    • employees arranged into layers or levels with power authority, responsibility and accountability increasing the further up the hierarchy they progress
    • rigid lines of communication with most communication going downwards
  4. FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE
    • Traditional organisational structure based on functions performed eg
    • finance, marketing
    • Advantages – allows for employee specialisation which improved
    • productivity, clear career paths and economies of scale
  5. GEOGRAPHIC STRUCTURE
    based on divisions according to location
  6. PRODUCT BASED STRUCTURE
    Employees are grouped together based on products they make or sell
  7. CUSTOMER BASED STRUCTURE
    based on the type of customers dealt with by a group of employees
  8. BUREAUCRATIC STRUCTURE
    • clear division of labour with a large degree of specialisation
    • clear downward communication
    • centralised decision making
    • narrow span of control
  9. FLATTER STRUCTURE
    • fewer levels of staff between senior and front-line, resulting in shorter and improved communication paths
    • employees are involved in decision making (decentralised) 
    • increased training and multiskilling of employees
  10. MATRIX STRUCTURE
    a structure that places managers and employees into project teams that cut across functional or departmental lines, and requires them to report to both functional and task management
  11. NETWORK STRUCTURE
    functions are outsourced to other organisations; the core organisation exerts control via outsourcing contracts
  12. SPAN OF CONTROL
    the number of people reporting directly to one manager or supervisor
  13. CHAIN OF COMMAND
    the vertical line of authority that passes command down through the levels of an organisation’s hierarchy
  14. UNITY OF COMMAND
    each employee is directly responsible to one manager
  15. CONSEQUENCES OF FLATTER ORGANISATION STRUCTURES
    • fewer levels of staff between senior management and front-line employees, resulting in shorter and improved communication paths 
    • a reduction in operating costs due to management downsizing
  16. DELAYERING
    reorganisation of an organisation by removal of one or more layers of management
  17. CORPORATE CULTURE
    the shared values and beliefs of an organisation, which can influence the actions and decision-making style of managers and employees
  18. DIFFERENCES IN CORPORATE CULTURE
    • attention to detail
    • people orientation
    • task or process orientation
    • team orientation
    • level of competitiveness
    • degree of emphasis on ethical and social responsibilities
    • diversity
    • age of the organisation
  19. INDICATORS OF CORPORATE CULTURE
    • stories and narratives
    • rituals
    • material symbols
    • behaviour of management
    • recognition
    • communication
    • specialist language 
    • training
    • policies
  20. PRESSURES TO CHANGE CORPORATE CULTURE
    • increased productivity
    • greater employee work ethic
    • reduced staff absenteeism and turnover
    • reduced cost of recruitment and training
    • greater profitability
    • positive public perception
  21. BENEFITS OF A POSITIVE AND SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE CORPORATE CULTURE
    • increased productivity
    • greater employee
    • work ethicreduced
    • staff absenteeism and turnover
    • reduced cost of recruitment and training
    • greater profitability
    • positive public perception
  22. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN POLICY AND PROCEDURE
    A policy is a guiding principle used to set direction in an organisation. A procedure is a series of steps to be followed as a consistent and repetitive approach to accomplish an end result.
  23. PRESSURES ON POLICY DEVELOPMENT EXTERNAL
    • legal pressures/legislative compliance
    • social responsibility
    • changing markets and other international pressures
    • changes in technology
  24. OPERATING PRESSURES
    • lobby groups
    • trade unions
  25. INTERNAL PRESSURES
    • owners/shareholders
    • management and employees
  26. POLICY DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
    • 1. issue identification
    • 2. research and analysis
    • 3. stakeholder input
    • 4. policy development
    • 5. draft policy is posted
    • 6. policy approval
    • 7. evaluation

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