Anatomy and Physiolgy

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Anatomy and Physiolgy
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  1. The study of the body is divided into how many sciences?
    two
  2. What is the study of the body structures and the relation of one part to another?
    Anatomy
  3. What is the study of how the body works and how the various parts function individually and in relation to each other?
    Physiology
  4. What imaginary plane divides the body into right and left halves on its vertical axis?
    sagittal
  5. What planes are drawn perpedicular to the sagittal lines and divide the body into anterior and posterior sections?
    Frontal
  6. what plane which is drawn at right angles to both sagittal and frontal planes, divides the body into superior and inferior sections?
    Transerve
  7. To aid in understanding the location of anatomical structures, a standard body position called what is used as a point of reference?
    Anatomical Position
  8. What involves the physcial and chemical break down of food into the simplest form?
    Digestition
  9. What is the process of absorption, storage, and use of foods for body growth, maintenance, and repair?
    Metabolism
  10. What is the body's self regulated control of its internal enviroment?
    Homeostasis
  11. What is the beginning level of the organization of the body?
    Chemical level
  12. What consist of chemical structures organized within larger units (cells) to perform a specific function?
    Organelles
  13. What consist of the smallest and most numerous structural unit that possess and exhibits the basic characteristics of living matter?
    Cells
  14. What are a group of many similar cells that all develop together from the same part of an embryo and all perform a special function?
    Tissues
  15. What is defined as a structure made up of several different kinds of tissues arranged so that, together, they can perform a special function?
    Organ
  16. What are the most complex organizational units of the body?
    Systems
  17. There are how many major systems that make up the body?
    11
  18. What are a collection of interactive parts that are capable of surviving in hostile enviroments, with the ability to reproduce and repair damaged parts?
    Organisms
  19. What is the smallest and most numerous structural unti that possesses and exhibits the basic characteristics of living matter?
    Cell
  20. A typical cell is made up of the plasma membrane, the nucleus and what else?
    Cytoplasm
  21. What is a small, dense, usually spherical body that controls the chemical reactions occurring in the cell?
    Nucleus
  22. Ever human cell contains how many chromosones?
    46
  23. Tissues are classified into four main groups: epithelial, connective, muscular, and what else?
    Nervous
  24. The lining tissue of the body is called what?
    Epithelium
  25. What tissue is composed of a single layer of cells whose nuclei are located at the same level as the nuclei in their neighboring cells?
    Columnar
  26. In the digestive sustem, the chief function of columnar tissue is the secretion of digestive fluids and the absorption of nutrients from the digested foods. In the certain areas (such as the nostrils, bronchial tubes, and trachea), this tissue has a crown of microscopic hair like processes known as what?
    Cilia
  27. What tissue is composed of thin plate-like or scale-like cells forming a mosaic pattern?
    Squamous epithelial
  28. What tissue is the main protective tissue of the body?
    Squamous
  29. In the kidneys, what tissue functions in the secretion and absorption of fluids?
    Cubiodal
  30. What tissue is highly vascular, surrounds other cells, encases internal organs, sheathes muscles, wraps bones, encloses joints, and provides the supporting framework of the body?
    Connective
  31. What tissue consist of a meshwork of thin fibers that interlace in all directions, giving the tissue both elasticity and tensile strength?
    Areolar
  32. What tissue is fatty tissue?
    Apidose
  33. What type of tissue, is known as "bone tissue" is dense fibrous connective tissue that forms tendons, ligaments, cartilage, and bones?
    Osseous Connective
  34. What tissue provides for all body movement?
    Muscular
  35. The three types of muscle tissue are skeletal, smooth, and what else?
    Cardiac
  36. What tissue is the most complex tissue in the body?
    Nerve
  37. Whe basic cell of the nerve tissue is the what?
    Neuron
  38. What is the outer skin layer?
    Epidermis
  39. What is a wide area of connective tissue that contains blood vessels, nerve fibers, smooth muscle, and skin appendages?
    Dermis
  40. The skin contains two types of nerve fibers, motor and what else?
    Sensory
  41. What are a control of mechanism to reduce the body's heat by evaporating water from its surface?
    Sweat Glands
  42. What glands are modified sweat glands found only in the auditory canal?
    Ceruminous
  43. The skeleton, the bony framework of the body, is composed of how many bones?
    206
  44. What is the study of structures of bone?
    Osteology
  45. Bone is made of inorganic mineral salts (calcium and phosphorus being the most prevalent) and an organic substance called what?
    Ossein
  46. The thin outer membrane surrounding the bone is called what?
    Periosteum
  47. When a bone fractures, the pain that is felt comes from what?
    Periosteum
  48. What is the elongated, cylindrical portion(or shaft) of the bone that is between the epephyses or ends of bone?
    Diaphysis
  49. The skull consists of how many bones?
    28
  50. The human skeleton is divided into two main divisions, the axial skeleton and what other skeleton?
    Appendicular
  51. With the exception of mandible and the bones of the inner ear, all skull bones are joined together firmly along seams. The seams where they join are kown as what?
    Sutures
  52. The cranium is formed by how many major bones, most of which are in pairs?
    Eight
  53. What bones form the sides and part of the base of the skull in the area of the ear?
    Temporal
  54. What bone forms the back part of the skull and the base of the cranium?
    Occipital
  55. What bone is situated in front of the sphenoid bone in the front part of the cranium?
    Ethmoid
  56. What bone is posterior to the ethmoid bone in provding for the front base of the cranium and forming the floor and sides of the orbits?
    Sphenoid
  57. The facial skeleton consists of how many stationary bones and a mobile lower jawbone (mandible)?
    14
  58. What bones form the upper jaw, the anterior roof of the mouth, the floors of the orbits, and the sides and floor of the nasal cavity?
    Maxillary
  59. The small holes on each side of the nasal opening are called what?
    Infraorbital foramina
  60. What bones are responsible for the prominence of the cheeks?
    Zygomatic
  61. What bones provide a pathway for a tube that carries tears from the eye to the nasal cavity?
    Lacrimal bones
  62. What bone is connected to the ethmoid bone, and together they form the nasal septum?
    Vomer bone
  63. The vertebral column consist of how many movable or true vertebrae, the sacrum, and the coccyx or the tail bone?
    24
  64. What protect the spinal cord and the nerves that branch out from the spinal cord?
    Vertebrae
  65. At the bottom of the spinal column are the sacrum and the what?
    Coccyx
  66. What is the hole directly behind the body of the vertebrae that forms the passage for the spinal cord?
    Vertebral foramen
  67. the spinal column is divided into how many regions?
    5
  68. There are how many cervical vertebrae in the neck?
    7
  69. There are how many vertebrae in the thoracic region?
    12
  70. There are how many lumbar vertebrae?
    Five
  71. The sacrum is the triangular bone immediately below the lumbar vertebrae. It is composed of five seperate vertebrae that gradually fuse together between 18 and how many years of age?
    30
  72. What (commonly called the collar bone) lies nearly horizontally above the first rib and is shaped like a flat letter S?
    Clavical
  73. What is the longest bone of the upper extremity and is often called the arm bone?
    Humerus
  74. There are how many carpel bones, arranged in two rows forming the wrist?
    Eight
  75. The small bones in the fingers are called what?
    Phalanges
  76. What bone, commonly known as the hip, is a large, irregularly shaped bone composed of three parts: the ilium, ischium, and pubis?
    Innominate
  77. What forms the outer prominence of the hip bone?
    Ilium
  78. The are where two pubic bones meet is called what?
    Symphysis pubis
  79. What is the longest bone in the body?
    Femur
  80. What is a small oval shaped bone overlying the knee joint?
    Patella
  81. Bones that develop within a tendon are known as what type of bones?
    Sesamoid
  82. The tarsus, or ankle, is formed by how many tarsal bones?
    Seven
  83. The sole and instep of the foot is caled the metatarsus and is made up of how many metatarsal bones?
    Five
  84. What binds the various parts of the skeletal system together and enables body parts to move in response to skeletal muscle contractions?
    Joint
  85. There are six classifications for freely movable joints: ball-in-socket, condyloid, gliding, hinge, pivot, and what else?
    Saddle
  86. What reach across the joints from one bone to another and keep the bone stable?
    Ligaments
  87. When ligaments are torn, the injury is called a what?
    Sprain
  88. When bones are chipped or broken, the injuring is called a what?
    Fracture
  89. Joint movements are generally divided into four types: gliding, angular, rotation, and what else?
    Circumduction
  90. The TMJ consist of how many bony parts?
    Three
  91. The point of fixed attachment of a muscle to bone is called the what?
    Origin
  92. Muscles seldom act alone; they usually work in groups held together by sheets of a white fibrous tissue called what?
    Fascia
  93. A muscle that is relaxing while a prime mover is contracting is called the what?
    Antagonist
  94. The chemical action of muscle fibers consists of two stages, contraction and what else?
    Recovery
  95. What is the continual state of partial contraction that gives the muscle firmness?
    Tonicity
  96. When a muscle dies, it becomes solid and rigid and no longer reacts. This stiffening, which occurs from 10minutes to several hours after death is called what?
    Rigor mortis
  97. There are how many types of muscle tissues?
    Three
  98. What muscle tissue form the bulk of the walls and septa of the heart, as well as the origins of the large blood vessels?
    Cardiac
  99. What is defined as the process of chewing food in preparation for swallowing and digestion?
    Mastication
  100. What muscle of the cheeks prevents food from escaping the chewing action of the teeth?
    Buccinator
  101. The area of the external lips where the red mucous membrane ends and the normal outside skin of the face begins is known as the what?
    Vermillion border
  102. What provides the tongue with friction in handling food and also act as taste buds?
    Papillae
  103. The palate forms the roof of the mouth and is divided into how many sections?
    Two
  104. The salivary glands produce how many pints of saliva daily, which greatly aids in the digestion process?
    Two-three
  105. What is the swallowing of food?
    Diglutition
  106. When the muscle becomes damaged, the result is a common condition known as a "stiff neck"?
    Sternocleidomastoid
  107. What is the large triangular muscle that forms the prominent chest muscle?
    Pectoralis major
  108. What muscle raises the arm and has its origin in the clavicle and the spine of the scapula?
    Deltoid
  109. What is the prominent muscle on the anterior surface of the upper arm?
    Biceps brachii
  110. What is a broad, flat muscle that covers approximately one-third of theback on each side?
    Latissimus dorsi
  111. What is a group of four muscles that make up the anterior portion of the thigh?
    Quadriceps
  112. What adducts the thigh, and flexes and medially rotates the leg?
    Gracillis
  113. What is the longest muscle in the body?
    Sartorius
  114. What is the primary muscle of respiration, modifying the size of the thorax and abdomen vertically?
    Diaphragm
  115. What is fluid tissue composed of formed elements (i.e. cells) suspended in plasma?
    Blood
  116. Total blood volume of the average adult is how many liters?
    5 to 6
  117. Plasma constitutes what percent of whole blood?
    55%
  118. When blood components are seperated, the WBCs and platelets form a thin layer, called the what, between the layers of plasma and RBCs?
    Buffy  coat
  119. Blood of the average man contains how many red cells per cubic milimeter?
    5 million
  120. What is the key of the red cell's ability to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide?
    Hemoglobin
  121. Dark red (venous) blood is the result of hemoglobin combining with what?
    Carbon dioxide
  122. Red blood cells only live about how many days in the body?
    100 - 120
  123. There is only one white cell to every how many red cells?
    600
  124. What are important for the protection of the body against disease?
    Leukocytes
  125. Thrombocytes are smaller than red blood cells and average about how many per cubic millimeter of blood?
    250,000
  126. What is an inherited disease characterized by delayed clotting of the blood and consequent difficulty in controlling hermorrhage?
    Hemophillia
  127. The heart is enclosed in a membranous sac, called the what?
    Paricardium
  128. The heart acts as how many interrelated pumps?
    4
  129. Contraction of the heart is called what?
    Systol
  130. Relaxtion of the heart is called what?
    Diastole
  131. The contractions of the heart are stimulated and maintained by the sinoatrial (SA) node, commonly called the what of the heart?
    pacemaker
  132. The normal hear rate, or number of contractions, is about how many beats per minute?
    80
  133. The difference between systolic and diastolic pressure is known as what?
    Pulse pressure
  134. What form a closed circuit of tubes that transport blood between the heart and body cells?
    Blood vessels
  135. The blood vessels of the body fall into how many classifications?
    Three
  136. What carries the blood away from the heart to all parts of the body?
    Arteries
  137. There are approximately how many miles of capillaries in the body?
    60,000
  138. As the blood passes through the capillaries, it releases oxygen and nutritive substances of the tissues and takes up various waste products to be carried away by what?
    Venules
  139. What system is comprised of vessels that collect blood from the capillaries and carry it back to the heart?
    Venous
  140. What is the largest artery in the body and is a large tube-like structure arising from the left ventrical of the heart?
    Aorta
  141. There are how many large arteries that arise from the aorta as it arches over the left lung?
    Three
  142. The three principle venous systems in the body are the pulmonary, portal, and what else?
    Systemic
  143. What is the vein most commonly used for venipuncture?
    Median cubital
  144. All tissues of the body are continuously bathed in what?
    Interstitial fluid
  145. Once the interstitial fluid enters the lymphatic capillaries, the fluid is called what?
    Lymph
  146. Lymph nodes, which are frequently called glands but are not true glads, are small bean shaped bodies of lymphatic tissue found in groups of two to how many along the course of the lymph vessels?
    15
  147. What protiens interfere with the ability of viruses to cause disease?
    Interferon
  148. The memorization and production of antibodies is called what?
    Active immunity
  149. There are five major parts of glia cells, Astrocytes, Microglia, Ependymal cells, Oligodendrocytes, and what other cells?
    Scwhann
  150. What help feed the brain and make up the Blood Brain Barrier?
    Astrocytes
  151. What enlarge, engulf, and destroy microorganisms and cellular debris?
    Microglia
  152. What produce the fatty myelin sheath around the nerve fibers in CNS?
    Oligodendrocytes
  153. The structure and functional unit of the nervous system is the nerve cell, or neuron, which can be classified into how many types?
    Three
  154. What is a cordlike bundle of fibers held together with connective tissue?
    Nerve
  155. The brain has six major division, the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, diancephalon, cerebrum and the what?
    Cerebellum
  156. What is the largest and most superiorly situated portion of the brain?
    Cerebrum
  157. What is concerned chiefly with bringing balance, haramony and coordination to the motions initiated by the cerebrum?
    Cerebellum
  158. What is the inferior portion of the brain, the last division before the beginning of the spinal cord?
    Medulla oblongata
  159. The outer surface of the brain and spinal cord is covered with how many layers of membranes called the meninges?
    Three
  160. Cerebrospinal fluid is formed by a what?
    Plexus
  161. The total quantity of spinal fluid bathing the spinal cord is about how many ml?
    75
  162. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of the nerves that branch out from the CNS and connects it to the other parts of the body. The PNS includes 12 pairs of cranial nerves and how many pairs of spinal nerves?
    31
  163. What nerve provides the sense of smell?
    Olfactory
  164. What nerve gonervns sensation of the forehead and face and the clenching of the jaw?
    Trigeminal
  165. What nerves transmit sensation from the upper mouth and throat area?
    Glossopharyngeal
  166. What nerve governs the muscle activity of the tongue?
    Hypoglassal
  167. There are how many pairs of spinal nerves that originate from the spinal cord?
    31
  168. What system informs areas of the cerebral cortex of changes that are taking place within the body or in the external enviroment?
    Sensory
  169. The sensation of taste is limited to sour, sweet, bitter, savory, and what else?
    Salty
  170. What consists of  structures that produce tears and drains them from the surface of the eyeball?
    Lacrimal apparatus
  171. What helps to give the cornea its curved shape?
    Aqueous humor
  172. The eyeball is composed of three layers; cslera, choroid, and what else?
    Retina
  173. What is a cricular pigmented muscular structure that gives color to the eye?
    Iris
  174. The opening of the iris is called the what?
    Pupil
  175. What seperates the eye into anterior and posterior cavities?
    Lens
  176. The area where the optic nerve enters the eyeball contains no rods and cones and is called what?
    Optic disc
  177. What is the process by which the lens increases or decreases its curvature to refract light rays into focus on the fovea contralis?
    Accomodation
  178. The ear is divided into how many parts?
    Three
  179. What collects sound waves from the enviroments that are conducted by the external auditory canal (about 3cm) to the eardrum?
    Auricle
  180. What aids in protecting the eardrum against foriegn bodies and microorganisms?
    Cerumen
  181. The eustachian tube, or auditory tube, connects the middle ear with the nasopharynx. It is lined with a mucous membrane and is about how many mm long?
    36
  182. The inner ear is filled with a fluid called what?
    Endolymph
  183. The endocrin system sends messages by way of chemical messngers called what?
    Hormones
  184. What is a structure in the brain that synthesizes chemicals that are secreted to the pituitary glad to release hormones and to help regulate body temperature?
    Hypothalamus
  185. What is often called the master gland of the body as it influences many other endocrin glands?
    Pituitary
  186. What is the growth hormone that influences the body's growth and development?
    Somatotropin
  187. The posterior pituitary gland stores two hormones, antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and what else?
    Oxytocin
  188. When ADH is not produced in adequate amounts, the daily urine volume increases to 10 and 15 liters instead of the normal 1.5 liters. This condition is known as what?
    Diabetes insipidus
  189. What stimulates contraction of the muscles of the uterus, particularly during delivery of a baby?
    Oxytocin
  190. What is essential for the formation of thyroxin?
    Iodine
  191. A condition known as what is caused by an insufficient secretion of thyroxin?
    Hypothroidism
  192. What is a condition characterized by retarded mental and physical development?
    Cretinism
  193. What regulates the calcium and phosphorus content of the blood and bones?
    Parathormone (PTH)
  194. Specialized cells in the outher layer of the adrenal cortex produce how many types of steroid hormones that are of vital importance?
    Three
  195. What are regulators of fluid and electrolyte balance?
    Mineralocorticoids
  196. What lowers blood sugar levels by increasing tissue utilization of glucose and stimulating the formation and storage of glycogen in the liver?
    Insulin
  197. The testes produce and secrete what male hormone which influences the development and maintenance of the male accessory sex organs and the secondary sex characteristics?
    Testosterone
  198. What influences the development and maintenance of the female accessory sex organs and the secondary sex characteristics, and promotes changes in the mucous lining of the uterus (endometrium) during menstrual cycle?
    Estrogen
  199. What is the hormone used for early pregnancy test?
    HCG
  200. What is the exhcange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the cells of the body?
    Respiration
  201. What serves both the respiratory and digestive sustems and aids in speech?
    Pharnyx
  202. What is a lid-like, leaf-shaped cartilaginous structure that covers the entrance of the larynx and separates it from the pharynx?
    Epiglottis
  203. What is responsible for the production of vocal sound?
    Larynx
  204. What are thing, microscopic air sacs within the lungs?
    Aveoli
  205. What are aritight membrances that cover the outer surface of the lungs and line the chest wall?
    Pleurae
  206. What is the tissue and organs of the thoracic cavity that form a septum between the lungs?
    Mediastinum
  207. What is the primary muscle of respiration?
    Diaphragm
  208. The nerve controlling the diaphragm is called the what?
    Phrenic nerve
  209. The lungs, when filled to capacity, hold about how many ml of air?
    6,200
  210. Mechanical digestion occurs when food is chewed, swallowed, and propelled by a wave-like motion called what?
    Peristalsis
  211. The alimentary canal (tract) is how many meters in length, tubular, and includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine?
    9
  212. What is the passagway between the mouth and the esophagus and is shared with the respiratory tract?
    Pharynx
  213. What is the cartlaginous flap that closes the opening to the larynx when food is being swallowed down the pharynx?
    Epiglottis
  214. The esophagus is a muscular tube about how many inches long and pierces the diaphram on its way to the stomach?
    10
  215. What acts as an initial storehouse for swallowed material and helps the chemical breakdown of food substances?
    Stomach
  216. What activates pepsin from pepsonogen, kills bacteria that enter the stomach, inhibits the digestive action of amylase, and helps regulate the opening and closing of the pyloric sphincter?
    Hydrochloric acide
  217. What is a protien-splitting enzyme capable of beginning the digestion of nearly all types of dietary protien?
    Pepsin
  218. What covers the intestines and organs, by secreting a serous fluid, it prevents friction between adjacent organs?
    Peritoneum
  219. The small intestine is a muscular, convoluted, coiled tube, about how many meters long and attached to the posterior abdominal wall by its mesentery?
    7
  220. The small intestine is divided into three contiguous parts: the duodenum, jejunum, and what else?
    Ileum
  221. After ingestion, it takes 20mins to how long for the first portion of the food to pass through the small instestine to the beginning of the large intestine?
    2 hours
  222. The salivary glands produce how many liters of saliva daily, greatly aiding in the digestion process?
    1.7
  223. What is the largest gland in the body?
    Liver
  224. What recieves bile from the liver and then concentrates it and stores it?
    Gallbladder
  225. What system is the primary filtering system of the body?
    Urinary
  226. A tube called the what carries the urine from the bladder to the outside of the body?
    Urethra
  227. What are the functional units of the kidneys?
    Nephrons
  228. What artery supplies blood to the kidneys?
    Renal
  229. There are about how many nephrons in each kidney?
    1 million
  230. What is the process by which the peritubular capillary transports certain substances directly into the fluid of the renal tubule?
    Secretion
  231. The glomerulus filters an estimated 1,200 ml of blood through the kidneys each minute (or 2,500 gallons in 24 hours) and about how many gallons of glomerular filtrate in 24 hours?
    80
  232. The wall of the bladder consists of how many bundles of smooth muscle fibers?
    Four
  233. What is the process by which urine is expelled from the bladder?
    Micturition
  234. The bladder can hold up to how many ml of urine?
    600
  235. The female uretha is about how many cm long, extending from the bladder to the external orifice?
    4
  236. The male urethra is about how many cm long and is divided into three parts?
    20
  237. What part of the male and female reproductive systems are concerned with the process of reproducing offspring, and each organ is adapted to perform specialized tasks?
    Gonads
  238. The interior of the testis is divided into how many or more cone shaped lobules?
    200
  239. The process by which sperm cells are produced is called what?
    Spermatogenesis
  240. What secretes the hormone glycogen, which helps sustain the lives of stored sperm cells and promotes their maturation?
    Epididymis
  241. What is a small tube that connects the epididymis and ejaculatory duct?
    Vas deferens
  242. What is a cutaneous pouch containing the testes and part of the spermatic cord?
    Scrotum
  243. The primary femaile reproductive organs are the what?
    Ovaries
  244. There are approximately how many primordial follicles at puberty?
    400,000
  245. What is the process by which the mature oocyte is release from the primordial follicle?
    Ovulation
  246. Each ovary normally releases an ovum every how many days?
    56
  247. The menstrual cycle in most women is approximately how many days?
    28
  248. What stimulates the enlargement of mammary glands and ducts, and increases fat deposits in female breats during puberty?
    Progesterone
  249. What serve as ducts for the ovaries providing a passageway to the uterus?
    Fallopian tubes
  250. The function of what is to receive the embryo that results from the fertilization of an egg cell and to sustain its life during development?
    Uterus
  251. What is the lower one-third portion of the uterus that projects into the upper part of the vagina?
    Cervix
  252. The wall of the vagina consists of how many layers?
    Three
  253. Many of the external accessory organs of the female reproductive system are referred to collectivley as the what?
    Vulva
  254. What is the area enclosed by the labia minora that includes those vaginal and urethral openings?
    Vestibule
  255. Females around what age begin to experience the female reproductive cycle and continue into middle age, after which it ceases?
    11
  256. What is the rupture of a primordial follicle with the release of mature ovum into the fallopian tubes?
    Ovulation

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