The study of the body is divided into how many sciences?
What is the study of the body structures and the relation of one part to another?
What is the study of how the body works and how the various parts function individually and in relation to each other?
What imaginary plane divides the body into right and left halves on its vertical axis?
What planes are drawn perpedicular to the sagittal lines and divide the body into anterior and posterior sections?
what plane which is drawn at right angles to both sagittal and frontal planes, divides the body into superior and inferior sections?
To aid in understanding the location of anatomical structures, a standard body position called what is used as a point of reference?
What involves the physcial and chemical break down of food into the simplest form?
What is the process of absorption, storage, and use of foods for body growth, maintenance, and repair?
What is the body's self regulated control of its internal enviroment?
What is the beginning level of the organization of the body?
What consist of chemical structures organized within larger units (cells) to perform a specific function?
What consist of the smallest and most numerous structural unit that possess and exhibits the basic characteristics of living matter?
What are a group of many similar cells that all develop together from the same part of an embryo and all perform a special function?
What is defined as a structure made up of several different kinds of tissues arranged so that, together, they can perform a special function?
What are the most complex organizational units of the body?
There are how many major systems that make up the body?
What are a collection of interactive parts that are capable of surviving in hostile enviroments, with the ability to reproduce and repair damaged parts?
What is the smallest and most numerous structural unti that possesses and exhibits the basic characteristics of living matter?
A typical cell is made up of the plasma membrane, the nucleus and what else?
What is a small, dense, usually spherical body that controls the chemical reactions occurring in the cell?
Ever human cell contains how many chromosones?
Tissues are classified into four main groups: epithelial, connective, muscular, and what else?
The lining tissue of the body is called what?
What tissue is composed of a single layer of cells whose nuclei are located at the same level as the nuclei in their neighboring cells?
In the digestive sustem, the chief function of columnar tissue is the secretion of digestive fluids and the absorption of nutrients from the digested foods. In the certain areas (such as the nostrils, bronchial tubes, and trachea), this tissue has a crown of microscopic hair like processes known as what?
What tissue is composed of thin plate-like or scale-like cells forming a mosaic pattern?
What tissue is the main protective tissue of the body?
In the kidneys, what tissue functions in the secretion and absorption of fluids?
What tissue is highly vascular, surrounds other cells, encases internal organs, sheathes muscles, wraps bones, encloses joints, and provides the supporting framework of the body?
What tissue consist of a meshwork of thin fibers that interlace in all directions, giving the tissue both elasticity and tensile strength?
What tissue is fatty tissue?
What type of tissue, is known as "bone tissue" is dense fibrous connective tissue that forms tendons, ligaments, cartilage, and bones?
What tissue provides for all body movement?
The three types of muscle tissue are skeletal, smooth, and what else?
What tissue is the most complex tissue in the body?
Whe basic cell of the nerve tissue is the what?
What is the outer skin layer?
What is a wide area of connective tissue that contains blood vessels, nerve fibers, smooth muscle, and skin appendages?
The skin contains two types of nerve fibers, motor and what else?
What are a control of mechanism to reduce the body's heat by evaporating water from its surface?
What glands are modified sweat glands found only in the auditory canal?
The skeleton, the bony framework of the body, is composed of how many bones?
What is the study of structures of bone?
Bone is made of inorganic mineral salts (calcium and phosphorus being the most prevalent) and an organic substance called what?
The thin outer membrane surrounding the bone is called what?
When a bone fractures, the pain that is felt comes from what?
What is the elongated, cylindrical portion(or shaft) of the bone that is between the epephyses or ends of bone?
The skull consists of how many bones?
The human skeleton is divided into two main divisions, the axial skeleton and what other skeleton?
With the exception of mandible and the bones of the inner ear, all skull bones are joined together firmly along seams. The seams where they join are kown as what?
The cranium is formed by how many major bones, most of which are in pairs?
What bones form the sides and part of the base of the skull in the area of the ear?
What bone forms the back part of the skull and the base of the cranium?
What bone is situated in front of the sphenoid bone in the front part of the cranium?
What bone is posterior to the ethmoid bone in provding for the front base of the cranium and forming the floor and sides of the orbits?
The facial skeleton consists of how many stationary bones and a mobile lower jawbone (mandible)?
What bones form the upper jaw, the anterior roof of the mouth, the floors of the orbits, and the sides and floor of the nasal cavity?
The small holes on each side of the nasal opening are called what?
What bones are responsible for the prominence of the cheeks?
What bones provide a pathway for a tube that carries tears from the eye to the nasal cavity?
What bone is connected to the ethmoid bone, and together they form the nasal septum?
The vertebral column consist of how many movable or true vertebrae, the sacrum, and the coccyx or the tail bone?
What protect the spinal cord and the nerves that branch out from the spinal cord?
At the bottom of the spinal column are the sacrum and the what?
What is the hole directly behind the body of the vertebrae that forms the passage for the spinal cord?
the spinal column is divided into how many regions?
There are how many cervical vertebrae in the neck?
There are how many vertebrae in the thoracic region?
There are how many lumbar vertebrae?
The sacrum is the triangular bone immediately below the lumbar vertebrae. It is composed of five seperate vertebrae that gradually fuse together between 18 and how many years of age?
What (commonly called the collar bone) lies nearly horizontally above the first rib and is shaped like a flat letter S?
What is the longest bone of the upper extremity and is often called the arm bone?
There are how many carpel bones, arranged in two rows forming the wrist?
The small bones in the fingers are called what?
What bone, commonly known as the hip, is a large, irregularly shaped bone composed of three parts: the ilium, ischium, and pubis?
What forms the outer prominence of the hip bone?
The are where two pubic bones meet is called what?
What is the longest bone in the body?
What is a small oval shaped bone overlying the knee joint?
Bones that develop within a tendon are known as what type of bones?
The tarsus, or ankle, is formed by how many tarsal bones?
The sole and instep of the foot is caled the metatarsus and is made up of how many metatarsal bones?
What binds the various parts of the skeletal system together and enables body parts to move in response to skeletal muscle contractions?
There are six classifications for freely movable joints: ball-in-socket, condyloid, gliding, hinge, pivot, and what else?
What reach across the joints from one bone to another and keep the bone stable?
When ligaments are torn, the injury is called a what?
When bones are chipped or broken, the injuring is called a what?
Joint movements are generally divided into four types: gliding, angular, rotation, and what else?
The TMJ consist of how many bony parts?
The point of fixed attachment of a muscle to bone is called the what?
Muscles seldom act alone; they usually work in groups held together by sheets of a white fibrous tissue called what?
A muscle that is relaxing while a prime mover is contracting is called the what?
The chemical action of muscle fibers consists of two stages, contraction and what else?
What is the continual state of partial contraction that gives the muscle firmness?
When a muscle dies, it becomes solid and rigid and no longer reacts. This stiffening, which occurs from 10minutes to several hours after death is called what?
There are how many types of muscle tissues?
What muscle tissue form the bulk of the walls and septa of the heart, as well as the origins of the large blood vessels?
What is defined as the process of chewing food in preparation for swallowing and digestion?
What muscle of the cheeks prevents food from escaping the chewing action of the teeth?
The area of the external lips where the red mucous membrane ends and the normal outside skin of the face begins is known as the what?
What provides the tongue with friction in handling food and also act as taste buds?
The palate forms the roof of the mouth and is divided into how many sections?
The salivary glands produce how many pints of saliva daily, which greatly aids in the digestion process?
What is the swallowing of food?
When the muscle becomes damaged, the result is a common condition known as a "stiff neck"?
What is the large triangular muscle that forms the prominent chest muscle?
What muscle raises the arm and has its origin in the clavicle and the spine of the scapula?
What is the prominent muscle on the anterior surface of the upper arm?
What is a broad, flat muscle that covers approximately one-third of theback on each side?
What is a group of four muscles that make up the anterior portion of the thigh?
What adducts the thigh, and flexes and medially rotates the leg?
What is the longest muscle in the body?
What is the primary muscle of respiration, modifying the size of the thorax and abdomen vertically?
What is fluid tissue composed of formed elements (i.e. cells) suspended in plasma?
Total blood volume of the average adult is how many liters?
5 to 6
Plasma constitutes what percent of whole blood?
When blood components are seperated, the WBCs and platelets form a thin layer, called the what, between the layers of plasma and RBCs?
Blood of the average man contains how many red cells per cubic milimeter?
What is the key of the red cell's ability to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide?
Dark red (venous) blood is the result of hemoglobin combining with what?
Red blood cells only live about how many days in the body?
100 - 120
There is only one white cell to every how many red cells?
What are important for the protection of the body against disease?
Thrombocytes are smaller than red blood cells and average about how many per cubic millimeter of blood?
What is an inherited disease characterized by delayed clotting of the blood and consequent difficulty in controlling hermorrhage?
The heart is enclosed in a membranous sac, called the what?
The heart acts as how many interrelated pumps?
Contraction of the heart is called what?
Relaxtion of the heart is called what?
The contractions of the heart are stimulated and maintained by the sinoatrial (SA) node, commonly called the what of the heart?
The normal hear rate, or number of contractions, is about how many beats per minute?
The difference between systolic and diastolic pressure is known as what?
What form a closed circuit of tubes that transport blood between the heart and body cells?
The blood vessels of the body fall into how many classifications?
What carries the blood away from the heart to all parts of the body?
There are approximately how many miles of capillaries in the body?
As the blood passes through the capillaries, it releases oxygen and nutritive substances of the tissues and takes up various waste products to be carried away by what?
What system is comprised of vessels that collect blood from the capillaries and carry it back to the heart?
What is the largest artery in the body and is a large tube-like structure arising from the left ventrical of the heart?
There are how many large arteries that arise from the aorta as it arches over the left lung?
The three principle venous systems in the body are the pulmonary, portal, and what else?
What is the vein most commonly used for venipuncture?
All tissues of the body are continuously bathed in what?
Once the interstitial fluid enters the lymphatic capillaries, the fluid is called what?
Lymph nodes, which are frequently called glands but are not true glads, are small bean shaped bodies of lymphatic tissue found in groups of two to how many along the course of the lymph vessels?
What protiens interfere with the ability of viruses to cause disease?
The memorization and production of antibodies is called what?
There are five major parts of glia cells, Astrocytes, Microglia, Ependymal cells, Oligodendrocytes, and what other cells?
What help feed the brain and make up the Blood Brain Barrier?
What enlarge, engulf, and destroy microorganisms and cellular debris?
What produce the fatty myelin sheath around the nerve fibers in CNS?
The structure and functional unit of the nervous system is the nerve cell, or neuron, which can be classified into how many types?
What is a cordlike bundle of fibers held together with connective tissue?
The brain has six major division, the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, diancephalon, cerebrum and the what?
What is the largest and most superiorly situated portion of the brain?
What is concerned chiefly with bringing balance, haramony and coordination to the motions initiated by the cerebrum?
What is the inferior portion of the brain, the last division before the beginning of the spinal cord?
The outer surface of the brain and spinal cord is covered with how many layers of membranes called the meninges?
Cerebrospinal fluid is formed by a what?
The total quantity of spinal fluid bathing the spinal cord is about how many ml?
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of the nerves that branch out from the CNS and connects it to the other parts of the body. The PNS includes 12 pairs of cranial nerves and how many pairs of spinal nerves?
What nerve provides the sense of smell?
What nerve gonervns sensation of the forehead and face and the clenching of the jaw?
What nerves transmit sensation from the upper mouth and throat area?
What nerve governs the muscle activity of the tongue?
There are how many pairs of spinal nerves that originate from the spinal cord?
What system informs areas of the cerebral cortex of changes that are taking place within the body or in the external enviroment?
The sensation of taste is limited to sour, sweet, bitter, savory, and what else?
What consists of structures that produce tears and drains them from the surface of the eyeball?
What helps to give the cornea its curved shape?
The eyeball is composed of three layers; cslera, choroid, and what else?
What is a cricular pigmented muscular structure that gives color to the eye?
The opening of the iris is called the what?
What seperates the eye into anterior and posterior cavities?
The area where the optic nerve enters the eyeball contains no rods and cones and is called what?
What is the process by which the lens increases or decreases its curvature to refract light rays into focus on the fovea contralis?
The ear is divided into how many parts?
What collects sound waves from the enviroments that are conducted by the external auditory canal (about 3cm) to the eardrum?
What aids in protecting the eardrum against foriegn bodies and microorganisms?
The eustachian tube, or auditory tube, connects the middle ear with the nasopharynx. It is lined with a mucous membrane and is about how many mm long?
The inner ear is filled with a fluid called what?
The endocrin system sends messages by way of chemical messngers called what?
What is a structure in the brain that synthesizes chemicals that are secreted to the pituitary glad to release hormones and to help regulate body temperature?
What is often called the master gland of the body as it influences many other endocrin glands?
What is the growth hormone that influences the body's growth and development?
The posterior pituitary gland stores two hormones, antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and what else?
When ADH is not produced in adequate amounts, the daily urine volume increases to 10 and 15 liters instead of the normal 1.5 liters. This condition is known as what?
What stimulates contraction of the muscles of the uterus, particularly during delivery of a baby?
What is essential for the formation of thyroxin?
A condition known as what is caused by an insufficient secretion of thyroxin?
What is a condition characterized by retarded mental and physical development?
What regulates the calcium and phosphorus content of the blood and bones?
Specialized cells in the outher layer of the adrenal cortex produce how many types of steroid hormones that are of vital importance?
What are regulators of fluid and electrolyte balance?
What lowers blood sugar levels by increasing tissue utilization of glucose and stimulating the formation and storage of glycogen in the liver?
The testes produce and secrete what male hormone which influences the development and maintenance of the male accessory sex organs and the secondary sex characteristics?
What influences the development and maintenance of the female accessory sex organs and the secondary sex characteristics, and promotes changes in the mucous lining of the uterus (endometrium) during menstrual cycle?
What is the hormone used for early pregnancy test?
What is the exhcange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the cells of the body?
What serves both the respiratory and digestive sustems and aids in speech?
What is a lid-like, leaf-shaped cartilaginous structure that covers the entrance of the larynx and separates it from the pharynx?
What is responsible for the production of vocal sound?
What are thing, microscopic air sacs within the lungs?
What are aritight membrances that cover the outer surface of the lungs and line the chest wall?
What is the tissue and organs of the thoracic cavity that form a septum between the lungs?
What is the primary muscle of respiration?
The nerve controlling the diaphragm is called the what?
The lungs, when filled to capacity, hold about how many ml of air?
Mechanical digestion occurs when food is chewed, swallowed, and propelled by a wave-like motion called what?
The alimentary canal (tract) is how many meters in length, tubular, and includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine?
What is the passagway between the mouth and the esophagus and is shared with the respiratory tract?
What is the cartlaginous flap that closes the opening to the larynx when food is being swallowed down the pharynx?
The esophagus is a muscular tube about how many inches long and pierces the diaphram on its way to the stomach?
What acts as an initial storehouse for swallowed material and helps the chemical breakdown of food substances?
What activates pepsin from pepsonogen, kills bacteria that enter the stomach, inhibits the digestive action of amylase, and helps regulate the opening and closing of the pyloric sphincter?
What is a protien-splitting enzyme capable of beginning the digestion of nearly all types of dietary protien?
What covers the intestines and organs, by secreting a serous fluid, it prevents friction between adjacent organs?
The small intestine is a muscular, convoluted, coiled tube, about how many meters long and attached to the posterior abdominal wall by its mesentery?
The small intestine is divided into three contiguous parts: the duodenum, jejunum, and what else?
After ingestion, it takes 20mins to how long for the first portion of the food to pass through the small instestine to the beginning of the large intestine?
The salivary glands produce how many liters of saliva daily, greatly aiding in the digestion process?
What is the largest gland in the body?
What recieves bile from the liver and then concentrates it and stores it?
What system is the primary filtering system of the body?
A tube called the what carries the urine from the bladder to the outside of the body?
What are the functional units of the kidneys?
What artery supplies blood to the kidneys?
There are about how many nephrons in each kidney?
What is the process by which the peritubular capillary transports certain substances directly into the fluid of the renal tubule?
The glomerulus filters an estimated 1,200 ml of blood through the kidneys each minute (or 2,500 gallons in 24 hours) and about how many gallons of glomerular filtrate in 24 hours?
The wall of the bladder consists of how many bundles of smooth muscle fibers?
What is the process by which urine is expelled from the bladder?
The bladder can hold up to how many ml of urine?
The female uretha is about how many cm long, extending from the bladder to the external orifice?
The male urethra is about how many cm long and is divided into three parts?
What part of the male and female reproductive systems are concerned with the process of reproducing offspring, and each organ is adapted to perform specialized tasks?
The interior of the testis is divided into how many or more cone shaped lobules?
The process by which sperm cells are produced is called what?
What secretes the hormone glycogen, which helps sustain the lives of stored sperm cells and promotes their maturation?
What is a small tube that connects the epididymis and ejaculatory duct?
What is a cutaneous pouch containing the testes and part of the spermatic cord?
The primary femaile reproductive organs are the what?
There are approximately how many primordial follicles at puberty?
What is the process by which the mature oocyte is release from the primordial follicle?
Each ovary normally releases an ovum every how many days?
The menstrual cycle in most women is approximately how many days?
What stimulates the enlargement of mammary glands and ducts, and increases fat deposits in female breats during puberty?
What serve as ducts for the ovaries providing a passageway to the uterus?
The function of what is to receive the embryo that results from the fertilization of an egg cell and to sustain its life during development?
What is the lower one-third portion of the uterus that projects into the upper part of the vagina?
The wall of the vagina consists of how many layers?
Many of the external accessory organs of the female reproductive system are referred to collectivley as the what?
What is the area enclosed by the labia minora that includes those vaginal and urethral openings?
Females around what age begin to experience the female reproductive cycle and continue into middle age, after which it ceases?
What is the rupture of a primordial follicle with the release of mature ovum into the fallopian tubes?