microbiology

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Author:
mattnjaneal
ID:
224450
Filename:
microbiology
Updated:
2013-06-20 12:36:36
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immune response
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Description:
chapter 14-15
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  1. innate immune response
    • protection we are born with
    • vary amount of cells and chemicals, but we can't change the mechanisms
  2. first line defenses
    • obstacles to MO invasion
    • includes physical barriers, antimicrobial substances, normal flora
  3. physical barriers
    intact skin and mucous membranes
  4. antimicrobial substances
    • in sweat or mucous
    • lysozyme: lyce cell walls
    • peroxidase: create free radicals
    • lactoferrin: hides iron from MO
    • defensins: destroy target cell
  5. normal flora
    protect their "turf"
  6. communication as an immune response
    • surface receptors: self/non-self
    • cytokines: chemical messengers
    • adhesion molecules: allow damaged tissue to flag for help. ex: interferons
  7. sensor systems
    • recognize breach of 1st line of defense
    • ex: TLRs (toll-like receptors) and compliment
  8. TLRs
    • toll-like receptors
    • on host cell surface
    • recognize and bind to certain molecules that are unique to MO's
    • recognize LPS to bind and enfulf and destroy
  9. compliment
    • group of 20 serum proteins
    • when activated it triggers inflammation and MAC (membrane attack complex) on the target (pokes hole in MO)
    • classical path to activate- requires Ab's
    • non-classical - repeating surface molecules like LPS on gram negative cell wall
  10. phagocytes
    • enfulf and digest invaders
    • includes macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils
  11. macrophages
    • derived from monocytes
    • surveillance and clean up
  12. dendritic cells
    in tissues, when they encounter antigen, they migrate to lymph nodes
  13. neutrophil
    first responders to SOS signal
  14. natural killer cells
    • NK
    • not phago cytes
    • lyse cancer cells (abnormal and foreign)
    • lyse viral infected cells
    • respond to interferon
  15. inflammation
    triggered by injury, infection and irritation
  16. cardinal signs of inflammation
    • erythema
    • edema
    • heat
    • pain (from injury or pressure)
  17. function of inflammation
    • prevent the spread of damage
    • set the stage for repair
    • disposes of debris
    • alerts adaptive response
  18. interferon
    • alpha and beta IFN are anti-viral and they attract NK cells; produced by viral infected cells
    • gamma IFN - secreted by lymphocytes to attract macrophages
  19. fever
    • elevated temp
    • controlled by hypothalamus
  20. function of fever
    • activate and accelerate immune response
    • pyrogens - chemicals that induce fever.  including lipid A and interleukin 1 (IL-1) which is released by activated macrophages
    • sequesters iron and zinc
    • speeds up repair
  21. origin of immune system cells
    • red bone marrow
    • hematopoiesis: blood cell formation
    • leukopoiesis: white blood cell formation
    • stem cells: where all blood cells originate from; pluripotent (they give rise to different types of blood cells)
    • colony stimulating factors - dictate what cells are produced
  22. leukocytes
    • granulocytes - named for dark staining granules; multi-lobed nucleus
    • agranulocytes - no dark staining granules, single nucleus with no lobes
  23. 3 granulocytes
    • neutrophils
    • basophils
    • eosinophils
  24. neutrophils
    • 3-6 lobes
    • polymorphonucleur neutrophillic leukocytes (PMN)
    • phagocytosis
    • lyse target with defensins and hydrolytic enzymes
  25. basophils
    • dark blue granules
    • 2 lobed nucleus
    • allergic reactions and inflammation
  26. eosinophils
    • reddish/orange granules
    • 2 lobed nucleus
    • fight parasitic worms
    • modulators of immune response
  27. 2 agranulocytes
    • mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells)
    • lymphocytes (T and B)
  28. monocytes
    • in blood
    • precursor to macrophages
    • mononuclear phagocytes
    • agranulocyte
  29. macrophages
    • abundant in spleen, liver, lymph nodes, lungs, and abdominal cavity
    • antigen presentation
  30. dendritic cells
    • highly branched
    • go between for the innate and adaptive response
    • antigens activate and they migrate to nodes
    • antigen presentation
  31. lymphocytes
    • responsible for adaptive response
    • nucleus almost as large as cell
    • T lymphocyte: cell mediated immunity and coordinate response
    • B lymphocyte: antibody mediated (hemoral) response
  32. antigen
    any substance that triggers an immune response
  33. characteristics of adaptive defenses
    • specific: recognize and target a particular antigen
    • systemic: not restricted to initial site; part of blood and lymph
    • memory: recognize and mount a stronger and faster response
  34. self antigens
    MHC proteins on cell surface
  35. MHC
    • major histo compatability complex
    • set of genes unique to individual
    • code for surface (self) proteins
    • MHC proteins - glycoproteins
  36. 2 classes of MHC
    • MHC I: all cells except RBC, "window" into cells activity; present endogenous Ag
    • MHC II: activated immune cells; macrophages and B cells; presents exogenous Ag
  37. cells of adaptive response - maturation
    • immunocompetent - able to recognize and bind to a specific Ag; must have a surface receptor for this (B cell or T cell receptor)
    • self-tolerance: recognize self but are unresponsive, don't attack self
    • naive: haven't "seen" real Ag yet but they are ready
  38. B lymphocytes
    • origin: bone marrow
    • maturation: bone marrow
    • receptor: IgD molecule (Ab)
  39. T Lymphocyte
    • origin: bone marrow
    • maturation: in thymus gland
  40. maturation for T lymphocytes
    • positive selection: does it recognize MHCI?  If yes then it goes on to the next step, if no then it goes through apoptosis (cell death).
    • negative selection:  checks for self tolerance.  If yes then it leaves the thymus, if no then apoptosis.
  41. 2 populations of T lymphocytes
    • 1. cytotoxic T cells - Tc cells
    • effector cell - take action, "killer" T cells
    • receptor - MHCI + Ag restricted; recognize foreign, abnormal and infected cells
    • CD8+
    • 2. Helper T cells - Th cells
    • coordinator
    • CD4+
    • TCR - restricted to MHCII + Ag (presented Ag)
    • TCR
  42. cell mediated immune response
    • 1) infected or abnormal cell - present Ag with the MHCI
    • 2) Tc Cell - make contact with target cell; release granules to destroy the target
  43. antibody mediated response
    • 1) B lymphocyte
    • a) bind to Ag (IgD)
    • b) engulfs Ag and processes it
    • c) presents Ag w/ MHCII
    • 2) APC
    • a) engulf Ag
    • b) process Ag
    • c) presents Ag with MHCII
  44. antibodies
    immunoglobulins
  45. structure of antibodies
    • four polypeptides; 2 light and 2 heavy chains
    • Fab: variable region; binds Ag
    • Fc: constant region; can bind complement; host cells
  46. classes of antibodies
    • IgM
    • IgA
    • IgD
    • IgG
    • IgE
  47. IgM
    • pentamer
    • large
    • mop
    • 10 Ag binding site
    • First Ab produced
    • remain in blood
    • agglutination - clumping Ag/ Ab
  48. IgA
    • secretory Ab
    • dimer
    • secretions - milk, tears, sweat, saliva, and intestinal juices
    • protects the "tracts", epithelial surfaces
  49. IgD
    • B cell receptors
    • typical Y structure
  50. IgG
    • gamma globulinds
    • typical Y structure
    • in blood and tissues
    • can cross placenta (maternal)
    • fixes complement
    • late primary and first in secondary response
  51. IgE
    • Fc region binds to mast cells and basophils to sensitize them
    • inflammation and allergic reactions
  52. amnestic response
    • secondary response
    • memory response
    • no lag
    • higher titer
    • lasts longer
    • memory b cells
    • occurs at 2nd challenge
  53. function of Ab's
    • neutralization - block Ag from binding
    • agglutination
    • precipitation - fall out of solution
    • activate complement
    • opsinization - increased phagocytosis
  54. natural immunity
    • acquired via normal life experience, no medical intervention
    • either active or passive
  55. active natural immunity
    • exposed to microbe and you mount immune response
    • if pathogen, you will probably get sick
  56. passive natural immunity
    • receive antibodies
    • maternal Ab's - transplacental or by breastfeeding
  57. artificial immunity
    • purposefully exposed to Ag or receive immunity
    • vaccination - shows Ag in an inactivated or attenuated or acellular for.  mount own immune response
    • preformed Ab's - gamma globulin shot
  58. live vaccines
    attenuated - weakened strain
  59. inactive or killed vaccine
    dead, not capable of infection
  60. acellular vaccine
    • polysaccharides - capsule, LPS
    • proteins - viral spikes or receptors
    • show you a piece of the virus
  61. DNA and recombinant vaccines
    • DNA - load genes on gold beads and shoot skeletal muscle; muscle cells express gene and show it to immune system
    • recombination - package pathogen genes into one MO
  62. adjuvant
    • increase the efficacy of the vaccine
    • boosts immune response
    • contains oils
    • extends exposure

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