CCENT vocab - sec 2

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CCENT vocab - sec 2
2014-05-20 21:06:11

Vocabulary for section 2 of Cisco's CCNA/CCENT ICND1
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  1. broadcast domain
    A set of all devices that receive broadcast frames originating from any device within the set. Devices in the same VLAN are in the same broadcast domain.
  2. broadcast frame
    An Ethernet frame sent to destination address FFFF.FFFF.FFFF, meaning that the frame should be delivered to all hosts on that LAN
  3. collision domain
    A set of network interface cards (NICs) for which a frame sent by one NIC could result in a collision with a frame sent by any other NIC in the same collision domain.
  4. cut-through switching
    One of three options for internal processing on some models of Cisco LAN switches in which the frame is forwarded as soon as possible, including forwarding the first bits of the frame before the whole frame is received.
  5. flooding
    The result of the LAN switch forwarding process for broadcasts and unknown unicast frames. Switches forward these frames out all interfaces, except the interface in which the frame arrived. Switches also forward multicasts by default, although this behavior can be changed.
  6. fragment-free switching
    One of three internal processing options on some Cisco LAN switches in which the first bits of the frame may be forwarded before the entire frame is received, but not until the first 64-bytes of the frame are received, in which case, in a well-designed LAN, collision fragments should not occur as a result of this forwarding logic.
  7. microsegmentation
    The process in LAN design by which every switch port connects to a single device, with no hubs connected to the switch ports, creating a separate collision domain per interface. The term's origin relates to the fact that one definition for the word "segment" is "collision domain," with a switch separating each switch port into a separate collision domain or segment.
  8. segmentation
    The process of breaking a large piece of data from an application into pieces appropriate in size to be sent through the network.
  9. Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
    A bridge protocol that uses the Spanning Tree algorithm, allowing a switch to dynamically work around loops in a network topology by creating a spanning tree. Switches exchange bridge protocol data unit (BPDU) messages with other bridges to detect loops and then remove loops by shutting down selected bridge interfaces.
  10. store-and-forward switching
    One of three internal processing options on some Cisco LAN switches in which the Ethernet frame must be completely received before the switch can begin forwarding the first bit of the frame.
  11. unknown unicast frame
    An Ethernet frame whose destination MAC address is not listed in a switch's MAC address table, so the switch must flood the frame.
  12. virtual LAN (VLAN)
    A group of devices, connected to one or more switches, with the devices grouped into a single broadcast domain through switch configuration. VLANs allow switch administrators to separate the devices connected to the switches into separate VLANs without requiring separate physical switches, gaining design advantages of separating the traffic without the expense of buying additional hardware.
  13. command-line interface (CLI)
    An interface that enables the user to interact with the operating system by entering commands and optional arguments
  14. Secure Shell (SSH)
    A TCP/IP application layer protocol that supports terminal emulation between a client and server, using dynamic key exchange and encryption to keep the communications private
  15. enable mode
    A part of the Cisco IOS CLI in which the user can use the most powerful and potentially disruptive commands on a router or switch, including the ability to then reach configuration mode and reconfigure the router
  16. user mode
    A mode of the interface to a router or switch in which the user can type only non disruptive EXEC commands, generally just to look at the current status, but not to change any operational settings
  17. configuration mode
    A part of the Cisco IOS software CLI in which the user can type configuration commands that are then added to the device's currently used configuration file (running-config).
  18. startup-config file
    In Cisco IOS switches and routers, the name of the file that resides in NVRAM memory, holding the device's configuration that will be loaded into RAM as the running-config file when the device is next reloaded or powered on.
  19. running-config file
    In Cisco IOS switches and routers, the name of the file that resides in RAM memory, holding the device's currently used configuration
  20. setup mode
    An option on Cisco IOS switches and routers that prompts the user for basic configuration information, resulting in new running-config and startup-config files.
  21. access interface
    A LAN network design term that refers to a switch interface connected to end-user devices.
  22. trunk interface
    On a LAN switch, an interface that is currently using either 802.1Q or ISL trunking.
  23. CDP neighbor
    A device on the other end of some communications cable that is advertising CDP (Cisco Delivery Protocol) updates
  24. up and up
    Jargon referring to the two interface states on a Cisco IOS router or switch (line status and protocol status), with the first "up" referring to the line status, and the second "up" referring to the protocol status. An interface in this state should be able to pass data-link frames
  25. error disabled
    An interface state on LAN switches that is the result of one of many security violations
  26. problem isolation
    The part of the troubleshooting process in which the engineer attempts to rule out possible causes of the problem until the root cause of the problem can be identified
  27. root cause
    A troubleshooting term that refers to the reason why a problem exists, specifically a reason for which, if changed, the problem would either be solved or changed to a different problem
  28. 802.11a
    The IEEE standard for wireless LANs using the U-NII spectrum, OFDM encoding, at speeds of up to 54 Mbps
  29. 802.11b
    The IEEE standard for wireless LANs using the ISM spectrum, DSSS encoding, at speeds of 11 Mbps
  30. 802.11g
    The IEEE standard for wireless LANs using the ISM spectrum, OFDM or DSSS encoding, and speeds of up to 54 Mbps
  31. 802.11i
    The IEEE standard for wireless LAN security, including authentication and encryption
  32. 802.11n
  33. access point
    A wireless LAN device that provides a means for wireless clients to send data to each other and to the rest of a wired network, with the AP connecting to both the wireless LAN and the wired Ethernet LAN
  34. ad hoc mode
    In wireless LANs, a method or mode of operation in which clients send data directly to each other without the use of a wireless access point
  35. Basic Service Set (BSS)
    In wireless LANs, a WLAN with a single access point
  36. CSMA/CD
    Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection. A media-access mechanism in which devices ready to transmit data first check the channel for a carrier. If no carrier is sensed for a specific period of time, a device can transmit. If two devices transmit at once, a collision occurs and is detected by all colliding devices. This collision subsequently delays retransmission from those devices for some random length of time
  37. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
    A method of encoding data for transmission over a wireless LAN in which the device uses 1 of 11 (in the USA) frequencies in the 2.4-GHz range
  38. Extended Service Set (ESS)
    In wireless LANs, a WLAN with multiple access points to create one WLAN, allowing roaming between access points
  39. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum
    A method of encoding data on a wireless LAN in which consecutive transmissions occur on different nearby frequency bands as compared with the prior transmission. Not used in modern WLAN standards.
  40. infrastructure mode
    A mode of wireless LAN operation in which the WLAN clients send and receive data with an AP, which allows the clients to communicate with the wired infrastructure through the AP. Clients do not send data to each other directly; the AP must receive the data from one client, and then send the data to the other WLAN client
  41. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
    A method of encoding data in wireless LANs that allows for generally higher data rates than the earlier FHSS and DSSS encoding methods
  42. Service Set Identifier (SSID)
    A text value used in wireless LANs to uniquely identify a single LAN
  43. Wi-Fi Alliance
    An organization formed by many companies in the wireless industry for the purpose of getting multivendor certified-compatible wireless products to market in a more timely fashion than would be possible by simply relying on standardization processes
  44. Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)
    A trademarked name of the Wi-Fi Alliance that represents a set of security specifications that predated the standardization of the IEEE 802.11i security standard
  45. wired equivalent privacy (WEP)
    An early WLAN security specification that used relatively weak security mechanisms, using only preshared keys and either no encryption or weak encryption
  46. WLAN client
    A wireless device that wants to gain access to a wireless access point for the purpose of communicating with other wireless devices or other devices connected to the wired internetwork
  47. WPA2
    The Wi-Fi Alliance trademarked name for the same set of security specifications defined in the IEEE 802.11i security standard