Brain and nervous system

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misssoni0
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22447
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Brain and nervous system
Updated:
2010-06-08 02:34:34
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psych unit
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also arousal
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  1. Adrenaline
    A hormone produced by the adrenalin glands that generally arouse the body preparing it for action
  2. Analytical function
    Operations that use logic to organise and interpret information, including mathmatical and scientific activities. these abilities are located in in the Left Hemisphere
  3. Broca's Aphasia
    A disorder brought about by brain damage to Broca's area. this results in the inabillity to produce fluent speech as well diffuculty articulating speech.
  4. Wernicke's Aphasia
    A disorder brought about by brain damage to Wenickes area. this results in the inabillity to comprehend the meaning of speech as well as the inability to interpretate writing.
  5. Arousal
    An individual level of alertness
  6. Associative areas
    Areas in the brain which process and combine information from the senses and relate to higher mental abilities
  7. Primary Auditory Cortex
    The area of the temporal lobe which recieves and processes information detected by our sense of hearing
  8. Electric Brain Stimulation (ESB)
    A method of investigating the function of a living brain by applying weak electrical current to different areas of the brain and observing the effect on a participant

    • VALUE
    • enables researcher to identify locations and functions of brain structures

    • LIMITATION
    • can only be done on people undergoind brain surgery therefor it is not performed on healthy brains
  9. Case Studies
    A researcher method involving in depth, intensive study of an individual, group, phenomenon or situation within its real life context

    • VALUE
    • it provides idea for theoretical explanations and experimental research

    • LIMITATION
    • the process of analysing, summarising and reporting this data is very time consuming and possibly expensive
  10. Broca's area
    • Area in the left frontal lobe responsible for...
    • 1) production of fluent, grammatically correct speech
    • 2) co-ordinationg muscles required to produce speech
  11. Central Nervous System
    (CNS)
    The brain and spinal cord
  12. Cerebral cortex
    • A layer of tissue that constitutes the outer layer of the serebrum. It functions are...
    • 1) motor co-ordination and control/processing of motor information
    • 2) Personality
  13. Cerebellum
    An are at the base of the brain responsible for controlling muscle tone, balance and the co-ordination of skilled memories.
  14. Cerebral Hemisphere
    The left and right halves of the cerebrum
  15. Cerebrum
    The largest structure in a human brain, responsible for controlling our higher mental functions
  16. Cognitive functions
    processes that involve mental activity in order to process information such as thinking reasoning, planning, memory, perception and using language
  17. Computerised Tomography (CT)
    X-rays are sent through the patients head at different angles to create cross sectional images of the brain.

    • VALUES
    • Useful for identifying precise locations abnormalities in brain structures.

    • LIMITATIONS
    • only shows the brain structure (provides no information about the brain functioning)
  18. Electroencephalograph (EEG)
    [brain]
    A device that detects, amplifies and records general patterns of Electrical activity of the brain.

    • VALUES
    • not invasive or expensive

    • LIMITATION
    • does not provide information about the functioning of specific structures within the braing
  19. Magnetic Resonance Imagining (MRI)
    A neuroimaging technique that uses harmless magnetic fields and radio waves to vibrate atoms in the brains's neurons to produce images of the brain.

    • VALUES
    • non-invasive

    • LIMITATIONS
    • cannot be used on people with internal metallic devices
  20. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
    Radioactive glucose is injected into the patient a PET scan then detects the gamma rays emitted. PET scans give information about the functioning as well as the structures of the brain.

    • VALUES
    • Enables detailed images of functioning as a person performs a task

    • LIMITATIONS
    • requires injection of radioactive substance
  21. functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    Neauroimaging technique that enables the identification of the brain that are active during a cognitive task by detecting changes in oxygen levels in the blood flow through th brain.

    • VALUES
    • does not require exposure to radiation

    • LIMITATIONS
    • expensive
  22. Fight or Flight Response
    Triggered by a state of arousal that prepares the body to either confront a threat or flee from the situation
  23. Corpus Callosum
    A large Bundle of fibres conecting the two cerebral hemispheres together that acts as a pathway for information to be passed between the hemispheres.
  24. Wernicke's area
    • An area in the left temporal lobe of the brain enabling the understanding of the meaning of words.
    • functions
    • 1)enabling interpretation of a written word
    • 2) comprehention of speech/language
  25. Temporal Lobe
    The main location on each side of the cerebral cortex where auditory is projected, enabling hearing hearing register.

    • Left= language
    • Right= music

    • FUNCTIONS
    • 1) recieves and stores episodal, proceedural and semantic memories
    • 2) recieves and processes sounds
  26. Parietal Lobe
    Areas located at the top of the brain which registers bodily (somatic) sensations such as touch, temperature, pressure, pain and body movement.

    • FUNCTIONS
    • 1) recieve and analyse information from body sensory receptors
    • 2) spatial reasoning
  27. Occipital lobe
    The primary visual area of the cerebral cortex enabling visual perception

    • FUNCTION
    • 1) Visual information is recieved and processed
  28. Frontal Lobe
    • Area in the cerebral cortex which enables
    • 1) higher mental functioning involving, learning, memory, control over movement
    • 2) processing smell
    • 3) controll emotions
    • 4) intellectial tasks requiring reasoning and planning
    • 5) personality
  29. General Adaption Syndrome (GAS)
    Refers to the mobilisation of one's system to cope with stressful situations.

    ALARM

    • -SHOCK
    • ability to cope falls below normal
    • -COUNTERSHOCK
    • body is prepared to cope with stress

    • RESISTENCE
    • ability to cope increases above normal

    • EXHAUSTION
    • ability to cope fall below normal resulting in depletion of the bodies resources
  30. Primary Motor Cortex
    Area in the Frontal Lobe which is involved with the planning and excecution of movement enabling fine co-ordination of movement
  31. Primary Somatosensory cortex
    An area in the parietal lobe which mediates our awareness of what is happenin in the body and it's surface
  32. Primary Auditory Cortex
    • LEFT: speech
    • RIGHT: location and recodnisation of non verbal sounds
  33. Primary visual cortex
    Area in which visual information is recieved and processed
  34. Hemispheric specialisation
    Particular abilities functions are located in each of the cerebral hemispheres rather than equally in both
  35. Homeostastis
    A balance state of equilibrium which an individual actively seeks to maintain
  36. Immune system
    the body's defence mechanism against invasion by bacteria and viruses
  37. Lateralisation
    The specialised functions within the two hemispheres
  38. Left Hemisphere
    • - verbal/linguistic functions
    • - analytical/logical functioning
  39. Parasympatheric Nervous System
    A division of the Autonomic Nervous System which is generally involved in restoring an individual after a state of arousal to a state of homeostastis
  40. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    The network of nerves that connect the CNS to all the other parts of the body. The PNS delivers information from sensory receptors to CNS and then CNS to muscles and glands.
  41. Afferent
    Sensory neurons
  42. Efferent
    Motor neurons
  43. Physiological response
    Identifiable biological behaviours
  44. The Polygraph
    A device that measures autonomis functions indicating arousal such as HR, RR, GSR simultaneously. Often referred to as a lie detector

    • LIMIATIONS
    • - high levels of arousal can indicate other emotional states
    • - guilty person can cheat by inducing a high level of arousal in controll questions by self inflicting pain
  45. Psychosomatic illness
    An illness that is contributed to by psychological factors but has physical symptoms that can be observed and measured
  46. Right Hemisphere
    • Non- verbal functions
    • - recognition of faces and emotions
    • - spatial skills
    • - appreaciation and create music and art
  47. Spinal Cord
    Part of the CNS relaying messages via nerve fibres to and from the brain. Also controll of reflexes
  48. Split Brain
    The condition after surgery after the Corpus Callosum is completely severed
  49. Stress
    A state of physiological and psychological tension produced internal or external sources percieved to be beyond one's ability to cope
  50. Stressor
    A specific event or condition in the environment that is individually classed as a challenge or potential threat to ones wellbeing
  51. Sympathetic Nervous System
    The division of the Autonomic Nervous System that is trigerred as a result of our fight or flight response.

    • - activates internal muscles, organs and glands
    • - secrete adrenaline and cortisol
    • - inhibit endocrine system (digestive)
  52. Somatic Nervous System
    This is the network of neurons that transmit mesages from sensory neurons to CNS, and controls the meassages to the voluntary movements of skeletal muscles
  53. Biofeedback
    The process where an individaual recieves information about the state of internal bodily responses that normally occur automatically
  54. Lymphocytes
    immune system

    detect and destroy harmful cells
  55. Phagocytes
    Ingest and eliminate the dead cells of and other debris
  56. Medulla
    Brain stem

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