Card Set Information
_________ are chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported by the bloodstream to reach target cells.
The chemical messengers of the nervous system are called _______, and the chemical messengers of the endocrine system are called_______.
neurotransmitters and hormones
________hormones are relatively small molecules that are structurally similar to amino acids. This group includes E, NE, TH, and Melatonin.
Amino Acid Derivatives
__________hormones consist of chains of amino acids. These molecules range from short proteins such as GH and Prolactin to short amino acid chains such as ADH and oxytocin.
________are lipids that are derived from cholesterol.
Hormones alter cellular operations by changing the identities, activities, locations, and quantities of important enzymes and structural proteins in various _______.
A target cell's sensitivity is determined by the presence or absence of a specific ______ with which a hormone interacts.
________are located on either on the cell membrane or inside the cell.
_______, ________, and ______ are not lipid soluble, meaning they cannot diffuse through a cell membrane.
Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and peptide hormones
_________, which are lipid soluble, diffuse across the cell membrane and bind to receptor proteins on the inner surface of the cell membrane.
________is involved in the link between the first and second messenger.
_______functions as an enzyme activator or inhibitor. Its net result changes the cell's metabolic activities,
What is the most important second messenger?
c-AMP appearance depends on an activated G protein, which activates an enzyme called?
Adenylate Cyclase converts _____ to a ring-shaped molecule of c-AMP.
______ diffuse rapidly through the lipid layer of the cell membrane and bind to receptors in the cytoplasm or nucleus. The resulting ____then activates or inactivates specific genes in the nucleus.
Steroid Hormones and hormone-receptor complex
When calcium levels in the blood decline, _________hormone is released?
When calcium in the blood rise, _____ is released.
Endocrine activity is controlled by?
______provides the highest level of endocrine control and is an important link between the endocrine and nervous system.
The hypothalamus secrets_____, which are special hormones that control the activity of endocrine cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
What are the two classes of regulatory hormones?
Releasing and inhibiting hormones
The hypothalamus acts as an endocrine organ by synthesizing what two hormones?
ADH and oxytocin
ADH and oxytocin are released into circulation at the ______.
Posterior pituitary gland
When the sympathetic division is activated, the _____release hormones into the bloodstream.
The ______is a small, oval gland nestled within the sella turcica, which is a depression in the sphenoid bone of the skull.
The pituitary gland hangs beneath the hypothalamus, connected to a slender stalk called?
The _______produces seven hormones.
Anterior pituitary gland