microbiology

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Author:
mattnjaneal
ID:
224507
Filename:
microbiology
Updated:
2013-06-20 17:54:24
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Immune disorders
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Description:
chapter 16
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  1. hypersensitivity
    inappropriate or exaggerated immune responses
  2. type I hypersensitivity
    • allergies: triggered by an antigen called an allergen
    • antibodies: IgE
    • response varies: a) atopy: localized response ex: hay fever, asthma (can be life threatening). b) anaphylaxis: systemic, life threatening
  3. steps for type I hypersensitivity
    • sensitization: 1st time you are exposed to allergen producing IgE.  IgE bind to mast cells or basophils.
    • provocative dose: subsequent exposure to allergen.
    • IgE binds allergen
    • causes increased in Ca+2
    • increased activity of adenylyl cyclase break down cAMP
    • decreased cAMP causes degranulation granules - histamine, serotonin, heparin, leukotrienes, prostaglandins
  4. prevention for type I hypersensitivity
    • avoid allergen
    • OTC meds: counteract granules ex: antihistamines. OR interfere with signal ex: zyrtec
    • desensitization - allergy shots increase doses over time; creating IgG to block
  5. type II hypersensitivity
    • cytotoxic response - complement activation
    • antibodies - IgG and IgM
    • bind to target
    • activate complement
    • MAC (membrane attack complex) forms and pokes holes in target
  6. examples of type II hypersensitivity
    • transfusion rxns
    • hemolytic disease of the newborns
    • thrombocytopenia
    • goodpasture syndrome
    • myasthenia gravis
  7. transfusion reactions
    • receive wrong blood type
    • serum sickness due to many lysed blood cells
  8. hemolytic disease of newborns
    • Rh disease
    • if mother's immune system "sees" baby's Rh+ blood cells
    • she will produce Anti Rh antibodies
    • IgG's - cross placenta
    • IgG binds the RBC's
    • complement activated
    • babys RBC lysed
    • prevention - give mom RhoGam - Anti Rh Ab's
  9. thrombocytopenia
    drug induced
  10. goodpasture syndrome
    • autoimmune disease
    • Ab's target kidney
  11. myasthenia gravis
    • auto immune
    • Ab's bind to Ach at the NMJ
    • loss of muscle function
  12. type III hypersensitivity
    • immune complex formation
    • Ag/Ab complexes
    • agglutinate (clump) and precipitate and trigger inflammation
  13. examples of type III hypersensitivity
    • arthus rxn: at site of Ag introduction or in blood vessels.  ex: vaccination or farmers lung (mold spores, lungs fill w/ fluid)
    • rheumatoid arthritis: complexes form in joints; autoimmune
    • glomerulonephritis: inflammation due to immune complexes; depositing in kidneys
    • systemic lupus (SLE): auto immune; complexes in skin and body organs; butterfly rash and organ lesions
  14. type IV hypersensitivity
    • cell mediated immunity (CMI)
    • cellular or delayed type reaction
    • takes 24-72 hrs to appear
    • ex: contact dermatitis, tuberculin skin test (PPD), poison ivy (uroshiol, hapten)
  15. immunodeficiencies
    lack a component in immune response or it's not functioning properly; genetic or viral induced
  16. examples of immunodeficiencies
    • bruton's agammaglobulinemia: lack B cells, genetic
    • SCID: severe combined immunodeficiency; lack stem cells to produce any WBC; bubble boy; bone marrow transplants; genetic
    • AIDS
  17. transplants
    donated tissue, cells, organs
  18. autograft
    from self, same MHC's
  19. isograft
    from genetically identical twin or clone
  20. allograft
    donor is same species, not genetically identical
  21. xenograft
    donor is another species

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