Design II Key Concepts

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Design II Key Concepts
2010-07-14 12:42:43
Design II Key Concepts

Design II Key Concepts
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  1. What are the three basic features that should be identified by a facility profile? (page 1-3)
    The facility profile should identify the building's structure, function, and occupants.
  2. What are the four basic elements of facility security that the property manager relies on? (page 1-4)
    • 1. Physical barriers
    • 2. Electronics
    • 3. Personnel
    • 4. Barriers
  3. What are the two types of physical barriers, and what are some examples of each type? (page 1-5)
    1. Perimeter Security: Perimeter security is the use of barriers and security personnel to surround and physically protect valuable material or information.

    2. Building Security: Windows, ventilation intakes, doors, locks and key control, lighting.
  4. What are the key security areas that require proper security measures in every building? (page 1-7)
    • 1. Windows
    • 2. Ventilation Intakes
    • 3. Doors
    • 4. Locks and Key Control
    • 5. Lighting
  5. What are the three functional assemblies of a lock? (page 1-10)
    A lock has three functional assemblies:

    • 1. a latch or bolt that holds the movable part, such as a door or window, to its frame.
    • 2. a maze-obstacle segment or tumbler array tha tis the barrier that must be passed to move the bolt.
    • 3. a key or unlocking device that is specifcially designed to pass the barrier and move the bolt.
  6. What is a change key? (page 1-15)
    A standard key that fits a single lock within a master key system or any other single lock that is not part of a master key system. Numerous locks can be keyed alike to accept only one key.
  7. What is a submaster key? (page 1-15)
    A key that opens all locks in a particular area or grouping within a facility, such as all locks on a floor of a buildin gor all locks within a suite of offices.
  8. What is a grand master key? (page 1-15)
    A key that opens every lock in a key system involving two or more master keys.
  9. What is a control key? (page 1-15)
    A maintenance key that removes the core of the lock from the housing and allows the combination for the lock to be reset. It is useful when keys are lost, but it works only for locks with interchangeable core cylinders.
  10. What are the three types of protective lighting? (page 1-16)
    • 1. Continuous lighting
    • 2. Glare Protection lighting
    • 3. Controlled lighting
  11. What is the difference between intrusion contacts and wire and screen sensors? (page 1-18)
    Intrusion contacts use a magnetic or spring-loaded switch that breaks an electrical circuit during an unauthorized opening of a door or window. Wire and screen sensors use electrical conductors woven into screen fabric to detect cutting or removal.
  12. What is the difference between motion detectors and photoelectronic sensors? (page 1-18)
    Motion detectors sense intruder presence through a variety of means, including changes in heat, vibration, and sound waves. Photoelectric sensors detect the breaking of a beam of light by an intruder.
  13. How do CCTV (closed-circuit television) cameras support security personnel? (page 1-20)
    • 1. Provide unobtrusive surveillance of a vulnerable area
    • 2. Allow close-up and more positive identification of persons or materials prior to authorizing their entrance or exit
    • 3. Provide a deterrent to crime because cameras are visible to employees and visitors
    • 4. Record incidents, when used with a VCR or DVR
    • 5. Provide better and more effective use of security personnel
  14. What are the major issues to consider when determining the number of security officers needed to monitor a facility? (page 1-23)
    • To determine the number of security officers needed, the number of posts to be staffed must first be identified. A post is a location or position to which a security officer is assigned or stationed. Issues to consider include:
    • 1. building hours of operation
    • 2. the number of contacts (people passing by)
    • 3. auto and truck entrances and their operating hours
    • 4. the number of patriols that a security office is expected to make during a shift, and whether they are foot patrols or vehicle patrols
    • 5. escort and other special services that may be rqeuired of the security department
  15. What is watch tour monitoring? (page 1-25)
    Managing security staff is made easier with a watch tour monitoring system - specifically designed hardware and software used to document a security officer's patrol. During each round, the security officer checks specific areas and conditions. An access card systme can be utilized to monitor the security personnel by assigning unique card numbers to each security officer.
  16. Other than cost, what should you look for when identifying a quality security company? (page 1-26)
    To identify a quality security company, the manager should look for documented proof of comprehensive hiring procedures and through training programs.
  17. What should a written and well-documented emergency and disaster plan include? (page 2-2)
    Each facility should have a written and well-documented disaster and emergency plan. The emergency plan is a reference tool that will help company and facility personnel respond to a situation. Individuals critical to the daily operation of a business or facility should be easily identified, and information that allows for 24-hour contact should be contained within the document. Make sure those on the 24-hour call list are informed and understand expectations.
  18. Who should be represented on the incident response management team? (page 2-6)
    Each business function or building tenant should have a respresentative on the incident management team.
  19. What should happen to incident response management team members that do not attend meetings or fully engage in the planning process? (page 2-6)
    Active involvement by all team members must occur. Members who do not attend meetings or fully engage in the planning process should be replaced.
  20. What data should be gathered as part of an emergency response plan? (page 2-6 and 2-7)
    • -Property name, location, contact person(s) for owner/landlord/property manager
    • -Driving directions and map
    • -Brief yet detailed description of the facility
    • -Available emergency equipment
    • -Utility suppliers for the facility
    • -Preferred contractors
    • -Details regarding all hazardous chemicals, including locations of asbestos
    • -Facility documents and drawings, or a notation of the location where they are stored
    • -Vendor emergency repair agreements
  21. What are the basic areas that should be addressed concerning task assignments in an emergency response plan? (pages 2-8 and 2-9)
    • 1. Establish a communication channel for the owner or executive personnel.
    • 2. Clearly identify an incident command-center location and stock it with items the response team will need.
    • 3. Establish expectations for all employees who become aware of an incident or potential incident, including the actions they should take to alert others if imminent physical harm is suspected.
    • 4. Outline a facility-occupant evacuation or assembly plan, which may include relocation to adjoining or nearby facility.
    • 5. Establish notification procedures for in-house security and local authorities, including police, fire, or medical personnel.
    • 6. Identify equipment and staff who will secure the affected area(s).
    • 7. Identify qualified medical staff or others who are trained to administer medical care.
    • 8. Identify a process and personnel who will manage the facility-occupant assembly area, and establish procedures for identifying missing occupants (employees) that may still be in harm's way, which information should be communicated to emergency personnel.
    • 9. Develop a public response plan that establishes one point of contact for all media inquiries and ensures that the incident response team can stay focused on its assigned task without distractions.
    • 10. Establish the process and procedures employees will utilize if alternative work locations will be necessary or changes in work reporting hours are required.
    • 11. Provide ncessary evacuation equipment and training for disabled personnel in the building and describe how they are to be treated in case of an emergency.
  22. What might be included in the fire response planning? (page 2-12)
    • Fire response planning may include the following:
    • -Appointing an incident evacuation coordinator
    • -Designating unit or department representatives to lead and direct their groups during the emergency
    • -Evacuation training (evacuation drills are a good training tool) may be required by local code
    • -Preparing a facility evacuation chart and plan
    • -Planning assistance for the disabled (wheelchair, learning, sight, hearing impaired, and so forth)
    • -Communicating verbally down the chain of command
  23. What should be addressed at a post-incident meeting? (pages 2-13 and 2-14)
    • The initial post-incident meeting should, at a minimum, address the following items, which should be outlined in the plan:
    • -A determination of whether any damage to the existing facility will disrupt any business functions. The incident response team will be working closely with the business-continuation team members (discussed below) at this time if all or a portion of the facility was damaged.
    • -Employee "return to work" notifications will need to be discussed and assigned team members activated to begin a telephone tree.
    • -If necessary, an employee incident-debriefing organization (specialists in post-traumatic counseling) shoudl be contacted and a schedule established. Trained specialists and counselors should be used whenever available.
    • -Employee and community communicatiosn should be started, if it is deemed necessary to communicate to the greater community. A communication schedule should be established at this time to provde an organized rollout of information.
    • -Addional communication may occur durnig this meeting with local authorities if criminal activities are identified. The team should identify the responsible police officer (department and badge number) along with report information (report number and copies, if available). Employees who may have additional information can be directed to the officer in charge.
    • -All related security records should be identified and retained for future reference (CCTV tapes, alarm reports, interviews, and so forth).
  24. What is included in BOC (business operations continuation) planning? (page 2-17)
    • 1. business operations analysis
    • 2. technical operations analysis
    • 3. developing the recovery plan
    • 4. writing the plan
  25. What is included in a technical operations analysis? (page 2-17)
    • -data storage and backup
    • -recovery processes and timetables
    • -capturing programming modifications
    • -unique systems identification
  26. To ensure full commitment, who should introduce a business recovery plan? (page 2-18)
    An introductory document from the president or senior management will help to secure the commitment needed for succesful completion of these documents.
  27. What are the three most important steps in the business recovery plan development process? (page 2-19)
    • 1. identify critical business functions
    • 2. capture technical functions
    • 3. establish recovery priorities
  28. In order to identify and develop BOC plans, how should business functions be prioritized? (page 2-19)
    • 1. facility recovery
    • 2. recovery of business processes
    • 3. technical data and systems recovery
    • 4. other recovery procedures
  29. What are the three ingredients necessary for fire? (page 3-3)
    • Fire is a product of a chemical reaction. Three ingredients are necessary for fire:
    • -Fuel (combustible gas, liquid, or solid)
    • -Oxygen
    • -Heat (to bring fuel to its ignition point)

    Fuel, oxygen, and heat must combine in a chemcial reaction for combustion to occur. Initially, heat is necessary for the ignition of fuel; once fuel is ignited and continues to burn, it produces its own heat.
  30. What is a code? (page 3-6)
    A code is a document cmopiled of requirements adopted by a legally empowered legislative body, such as a city or state government. Codesa re divided into such categories as building codes, fire prevention codes, mechanical codes, gas codes, electrical codes, and plumbing codes. Each code addresses general administration of the code as well as major issues to be regulated. Government agencies typically monitor and enforce codes.
  31. What is a standard? (page 3-6)
    A standard is a document that contains specific details of design of construction methods. A standard is usually more specific than the general requiremetns contained in a code. Many standards are developed by specialty groups, such as ANSI and the NFPA (National Fire PRotection Association).
  32. Explain the code requirements for a new building. (page 3-8)
    A new building is designe,d constructed, and occupied under the current edition of applicable building codes and standards. Usually, the date of application for a permit dictates which edition of a code applies to the work covered by that permit.

    Once a new building is completed and occupied, it must remain in compliance with the building codes that applied when it was legally approved for occupancy. Any changes or modifications made after the occupancy date are usually subject to requirements for a new building.
  33. Explain the code requirements when a renovation, addition, or change of use is made to an existing building. (pages 3-9 and 3-10)
    Typically, a code states that a renovation - of office space, for example - must meet all of the requriements of the current code. It does not require existing portions of the building or office that are untouched by the alteration to comply with current code requirements. However, the alteration must not cause the existing structure to become unsafe or adversely affect the performance of accessibility of the building.

    Additions to an existing building - increasing area or height, for example - must comply with current codes. The addtion and the existing structure, when combined, cannot exceed the area and height limitations established for a new building.

    A change in the use of an existing building to a new use activates special code provisions governing building construction, fire protection, and means of egress. Most codes stat that a change in use - for example, converting office space to assembly space - compels the building's compliance with all current code requirements applicable to the new site.
  34. What is the purpose of fire-rated walls? (page 3-14)
    Fire-rated walls are intended to prevent the horizontal passage of fire.
  35. Why do fire-rated doors usually have a lower rating than the fire rating of the surrounding walls? (page 3-14)
    Doors typically have a lower fire rating than surrounding walls because building contents, which serve as the fuel, are not located in front of the door. Therefore, the fire exposure to the door can be less than that experienced by the wall.
  36. What is a check valve? (page 3-17)
    A check valve is a device with a flapper that permits water to flow in one direction but not in the reverse direction. A control valve is installed on each side of each check valve.
  37. What does a fire-pump system typically consist of? (page 3-20)
    • A fire-pump system typically consists of the following:
    • -primary fire pump
    • -jockey pump
    • -controller
    • -driver
  38. What are the benefits of an automatic sprinkler system? (page 3-25)
    • -Apply water automatically and directly to the burning area prior to the arrival of the fire department, thereby controlling or extinguishing the fire.
    • -Warn occupants of fire by detecting fire and activating the fire alarm system
    • -Cool hot gas smoke developed from fire and minimize smoke development
    • -Allow an area to be safely occupied longer by controlling or limiting fire size
    • -Prevent flashover
  39. What are the four occupancies hazard levels classified by NFPA 13? (page 3-26)
    • 1. light hazard
    • 2. ordinary hazard (group 1)
    • 3. ordinary hazard (group 2)
    • 4. extra hazard (groups 1 and 2)
  40. Why is the fire extinguishing agent Halon being phased out? (page 3-32)
    Halon has been found to contribute to the destruction of the Earth's ozone layer. Subsequently, federal regulatino in the United States has ended production of Halon.
  41. What are the four classes of fires and the extinguishing agent used in fire extinguishers specifically for each class? (page 3-35)
    Class A: Fire involving ordinary combustible materials such as wood, paper, and cloth. Water-based and multipurpose dry chemcical extinguishers are used.

    Class B: Fires involving flammable liquids, oils, greases, and oil-based paints. Certain foams, carbon dioxide, and dry chemicals are used to extinguish these fires.

    Class C: Fires involving energized electrical equipment. Carbon dioxide and dry chemicals are used as exstinguishers.

    Class D: Fires involving combustible materials, such as magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium, lithium, and potassium. Agents specifically listed and approved for each specific metal must be used.
  42. Briefly explain the building codes and firefirghting procedures for high-rise buildings. (page 3-43)
    The building codes contain specific fire alarm provisions for buildings with occupied floors located more than 75 feet above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, typically defined as high-rise buildings. High-rise buildings are unique in that fire department firefighting efforts normally cannot be entirely executed from outside the building and therefore must occur from within. In addition, the complete evacuation of occupants from the building is not always practical or warranted.

    Whenever possible, those floors associated with the fire emergency, such as the fire floor, the floor above the fire floor (where smoke may spread) and the floor below the fire floor (where water from sprinklers or hoses may flow) are evacuated simultaneously. As the fire incident worsens or if deemed necessary by the fire official, mroe floros are then evacuated.

    To support these internal firefighting activities and evacuation procedures, additional fire alarm system capabilities are provided in high-rise buildings. New installations of fire alarm systems utilize a front-end CPU for monitoring and indication as well as integratino with other building systems such as security and HVAC.
  43. Where are voice alarm system speakers generally installed? (page 3-44)
    A voice alarm system is a signaling system using speakers as indicating devices, over which an alarm signal is automatically transmitted to building occupants. Speakers are generally installed in elevators, elevator lobbies, corridors, exit stairways, and rooms exceeding 1,000 SF. Other controls manually transmit evacuation signals and voice instructions on a selective (zone) and all-call (building-wide) basis.
  44. Explain the use of independent controls for a smoke control system. (page 3-48)
    Independent controls and operation should ensure that the smoke control system is always available for operation. These controls should include positive indicators of airflow and manual contorls that are separate, yet available to the fire department in a central location.
  45. How should fire protection control valves be positioned and inspected? (page 3-49)
    Each control valve in a fire protection system should be securied in its normal, open position with a seal or should be fitted with an electronic tamper switch. Control valves also should be numbered, and each should have a sign indicating the portion of the system that it controls. An inspection should be made periodically, with the condition of each valve recorded in a written report.
  46. How should fire protection control valves be handled when building alterations or repairs are being done? (page 3-52)
    When building alterations or repairs are being done, valves should remain open, with sprinkler systems kept in service to the greatest extent possible. When any planned alterations, additions, ro repairs are expected to interrupt sprinkler protection in whole or part, the insurance company and the fire department should be notified.
  47. What is electricity? (page 4-2)
    Electricity is the primary source of energy for commercial buildings. Electricity is a convenient form of energy, because it readily moves from one location to another and can be converted to other useful forms of energy through the use of various devices and equipment.
  48. What is current, and what is a conductor? (page 4-3)
    Current is the flow of an electric charge. When a force is applied to an atom that is strong enough to make an electron travel, or flow, between atoms, the result is an electric current. An electrical conductor is a medium - usually a wire or cable - through which electrons flow. In nonconducting material the electrons are bound to their base atom. In a conductor, the elecrons are free to drift between atoms. The more free electrons a material has, the less "resistance" it contains, the better conductor it is.
  49. When are three-phase and single-phase power systems used? (page 4-8)
    Electricity for commercial buildings is normally produced using a three-phase system. Large electric motors for pumps and HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning) systems in commercial buildings typically operate using all three phases, which is called three-phase power. General office lighting and receptacles operating using only one of the three phases, which is called single-phase power.
  50. What is grounding and how it is accomplished? (page 4-9)
    Grounding means safely connecting electrical equipment and devices to the earth. This can be accomplished by attaching a grounding wire to a metal rod inserted into the ground, or to the building's steel frame or plumbing system, each of which is buried in the earth. Grounding provides an emergency path to remove current safely in case of a malfunction in the electrical system.
  51. What are a volt and voltmeter? (page 4-11)
    The volt (V) is a measure of the pressure of electric current in an electrical circuit. It is the force that causes current to flow through a conductor. Volts are measured with an instrument called a voltmeter.
  52. What are an ampere and ammeter? (page 4-11)
    The ampere is a measure of the flow of electric current in an electrical circuit; that is, the amount of current in a conductor at a point in time. This current varies as the use of electric energy varies. The current in a conductor at a poitn in time is measured with an instrument called an ammeter. Ampere is usually abbreviated A, although amp and a are also common.
  53. What is the formula for calculating watts? (page 4-12)
    watts = volts x amperes
  54. What is a kilowatt hour? (page 4-12)
    Because large units of power are expressed as kilowatts, the usual unit of work is expressed as kilowatt-hours (kWh). Kilowatt-hour expresses useful work since it is the product of energy and time. A kilowatt-hour is simply 1,000 watts consumed for 1 hour. For example, a 100-watt lamp that operates for 10 hours per day uses 1,000 watt-hours, or 1 kilowatt-hour, of electricity. This usage is measured by a watt-hour meter or kilowatt-hour meter.
  55. What is a dedicated circuit? (page 4-17)
    A dedicated circuit is an electrical circuit or telephone line reserved exclusively for one appliance or occupant.
  56. What is a fuse? (page 4-22)
    A device that provides overcurrent protection by acting as a controlled weak link in a circuit. The metal ribbon or element is made of an alloy that will melt from the heat of an overcurrent condition.
  57. What is a circuit breaker? (page 4-22)
    A circuit breaker protects an electrical current from excessive current. When a circuit breaker detects an overcurrent, its mechanism automatically trips or releases. This mechanism can be reset without replacing any components. Circuit breakers can also function as manual switches. In many commercial buildings, these breakers are used to switch lights on and off.
  58. What is a transformer and what does it do? (page 4-26)
    A transformer is an electrical device that changes, or transforms, the voltage of the electricity passing through it. Transformers can increase or decrease that voltage. Transformers increase the voltage on the system at the utility company's generating station for transmission, decrease the voltage at intermeddiate points in the distribution system for local distribution, and decrease it again near a site for customer use.
  59. What is a variable frequency drive? (page 4-31)
    A variable-speed motor drive, also called an adjustable frequency drive or VFD (variable frequency drive), senses the load on an electric motor and adjusts its speed accordingly. Such smart motors should be considered for any new building. Traditional motor controls in existing buildigns can be replaced with solid-state variable speed motors.
  60. What is the difference between a brownout and a blackout? (page 4-34)
    During critical demand periods, utilityc ompanies may schedule brownouts, which are planned drops in voltage of 5% or more. Blackouts are total electric-supply failures.
  61. What is dual service? (page 4-35)
    A dual service consists of two full-capacity lines from the utility company, originating from different distribution sources. Each line from the utility company connects to switchgear that can transfer the load from one service to the other through a tie circuit breaker that is normally open. Usually the building load is divided between the two services. If one service fails, the load on the failed service is automatically transferred to the other service.
  62. What is normal reserve service? (page 4-36)
    The normal reserve service is a modification of the dual service. Similar to the dual service, normal reserve service has two full-capacity services originating from the utility company and terminating in the automatic-transfer swtichgear. The difference is that the entire load receives its power from one line. In the event of power loss, the normal service circuit breaker opens, the reserve circuit breaker closes, and the entire load is now fed from the alternate line.
  63. In addition to the equipment categories that typically constitute the electric load in commercial buildings, what else should be included in the planning for the distribution system? (page 4-38)
    Planning for the distribution systme for a commercial building should include an estimate of future building loads. Sufficient capacity provided initially allows for future growth so as to avoid the difficulty and cost involved to increase capacity at a later date. The primary cause of load growth in recent years has been the increased people load and the use of desktop computers.
  64. What is EMT? (page 4-42)
    Thin wall conduits, also called EMT (electrical metallic tubing), are made of steel or aluminum that can be bent to ease the routing of the electrical feeds. Thin wall conduit works where it is protected from physical damage and in noncorrosive environments.
  65. What are electrical system safety regulations intended to govern? (page 4-45)
    Regulations that govern the design and use of electrical systems and components are intended to protect the public and the workers who operate and maintain those systems, as well as the equipment and buildings in which it is installed.
  66. What is the best way to avoid being injured in an electrical accident while performing repairs or maintenance? (page 4-47)
    The best way to avoid being injured in an electrical saccident is to deengergize the circuit. If the circuit is deengergized, there will be no source of electricity and, therefore, no possibility of shock or electrocution. A procedure known as lockout/tagout is required by OSHA. It is used to ensure that once a circuit has been deengergized, it cannot be reengergized without the knowledge and permission of the person who established the lockout/tagout.
  67. What is clean power? (page 5-2)
    Electric power that is free of voltage and frequency distortions is referred to as clean power. This type of power is necessary for sensitive equipment. The quality of a building's power can be improved by installingn special equipment.
  68. What are the two primary purposes for a UPS (uninterruptible power supply) system? (page 5-4)
    For critical equipment that requires quality power and cannot afford to suffer even a momentary loss of power, a UPS system is required. There are two primary purposes for a UPS system. First, a well-designed UPS system supplies a constant voltage, frequency, and generally clean AC (alternating current) power. The UPS system provides clean power by completely reconstructing the AC wave-form, thus isolating the load from any distrubances seen on the input side of the UPS system. The secon purpose, and the main reason for UPS system, is to maintain power for a specified time during power outages. The UPS system can be used as a buffer to prevent power loss while transfer is being made between two utility supply systems or between the normal supply system and an alternate back-up power system, such as a generator system. In facilities with no alternate source back-up pwoer system, the UPS system itself acts as a backup source for short outages, or provides power for a short time to allow for an orderly shutdown of computer equipment if the outage is for an extended time.
  69. What are the two basic types of UPS systems? (page 5-5)
  70. WHat are the two types of battery-operated emergency power sources? (page 5-8)
  71. For what types of buildings and facilities might on-site power generation be more economical? (page 5-10)
  72. What is the main advantage of on-site power generation? (page 5-11)
    • 1. Static
    • 2. Rotating
  73. What are the major components of a total energy system? (page 5-14)
    • 1. Fuels
    • 2. Prime Movers
    • 3. Waste Heat Boilers
    • 4. Steam-Absorption Refrigeration Equipment
  74. What are the most frequently used fuels for a total energy system? (page 5-14)
    The most frequently used fuels for a total energy system are diesel fuel oil and natural gas. However, other gaseous fuesl such as propane, butane, field gas, and even sewage gas have been used. These gaseous fuels are sometimes combined, depending on the supply and pricing relationships of each. In addition, the trend is gorwing toward systems that are able to convert readily between fuesl, in order to minimize vulnerability to unexpected price increases or shortages of one particular fuel.
  75. Why is there a trend with total energy systems to be able to convert readily between different fuels? (page 5-14)
    The trend is growing towar systems that are abile to convert readily between fuels in order to minimize vulnerability to unexpected price increases or shortages of one particular fuel.
  76. What must current-interrupting devices be able to do? (page 5-16)
    Current-interrupting devices such as fuses, circuit-breakers, relays, and switches not only provide overload protecxtion (that is, when the load ona circuit is greater than the circuit rating), but must also be able to interrupt faults successfully.
  77. What are harmonics? (page 5-17)
    Harmonics is the distoration of both the voltage and current in an electrical system.
  78. What is power factor? (page 5-18)
    POwer factor is the ratio of the real power to the apparent power in an electrical circuit. Real power is measured by a watt-meter and is express in units of watts or kilowatts (kW); it isthe power that the utility bills for. Apparent power is the determined by multiplying volts by amperes and is epxressed in VA (volt-amperes) or kVA (thousands of volt-amperes). Apparent power is the total power in the electrical system, and the power that electrical systems are sized to accommodate.
  79. What is the concern associated with low power factor and utility charges? (pages 5-18 and 5-33)
    The building manager will primarily be concerned with the real power measured in kW since this laod multiplied by the time it is used results in the kilowatt hours listed on the utility bill. If the building's power factor is not within the acceptable levels establisehd by the utility, then the utility may require the building owner to install equipment to increase the power facxtor. This will increase the billable portion of the power consumed in the building.

    Many electric utility companies charge for low power factor since larger generation and distribution facilities are needed to compensate for the reduced system efficiency. Electric rates based on kilowatt-hour consumption and kilowatt demand do not compensate the electric company for all the power the utility must provide. Utility companies have established rate schedules that take the power factor of the load being measured into consideration. Many utility companies use a variety of methods either to penalize poor power factor or reqard good power factor.
  80. What does a power factor of less than 1 cause? (page 5-20)
    The out-of-phase relationship between current and voltage results in a low power factor (less than 1.0). This means that part of the electrical current performs no useful work; instead it builds and drain the electrical magnetic energy fields once each cycle. Put another way, if a certain amount of current is needed to perform work (for example, to run motors or burn lights), then a power factor below 1 means that extra, unneeded current will be traveling through the circuit. Power factors significantly less than 1 cause additional loads on cables and transformers, increased transmission losses, reduced voltages that result in sluggish motor operation, and reduced illumination.

    • Low power factor is undesirable for three reasons:
    • 1. The extra current requires a larger-capacity power transmissin network within the building
    • 2. The extra current results in direct energy drain by heat losses throughout the circuit
    • 3. The electric utility company is forced to use a larger-capacity power source and transmission network and, therefore, will often include penalties in the electric bill for lowe power factor
  81. What is a common technique for offsetting the phase lag and the resulting poor power factor from large inductive motor loads? (page 5-21)
    One common technique for offsetting the phase lag and the resulting poor power factor from large inductive motor loads is to install capacitors, preferably near the motors. A capacitor is an elecxtrical device that stores energy. The lag effect of motor loads is canceled by the lead effect of capacitors, resulting in a decreas in the current necessary for providing power. Typically, capacitors are installed near large motors driving central HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning) chillers and fans.
  82. What are the general maintenance requirements for switchgear? (page 5-22)
    Maintenance is required mainly to remove dust and dirt and to exercise components that do not move during normal operation. Excessive temperatures may indicate a lack of proper servicing.
  83. What are the five specified steps for switchgear maintenance? (page 5-23)
    • Switchgear maintenance consists of the following specified steps:
    • 1. cleaning
    • 2. inspecting
    • 3. exercising
    • 4. servicing
    • 5. testing
  84. Why is heat a concern with transformers? (page 5-24)
    Transformers perform satisfactorily within the temperature range for which they are designed. Theya re not reliable and will not perform properly beyond these temperature ranges, except for short periods. Heat will decrease the life of a transformer by causing a breakdown of the internal insualtion. Also, above an ambient temperature of 100-degrees Fahrenheit (easily possible in poorly ventilated electric closets or transformer rooms), a transformer begins to lose rated capacity and must be derated (for example, a 45 kVA transformer may only be capable fo serving a 35 kVA laod if the room tempreature is 100-degrees Fahrenheit). The most important maintenance function for transformers is to see that the means for continuously remvoing heat is maintained.
  85. What is the most important maintenance function for transformers? (page 5-25)
    The most important maintenance function for transformers is to see that the means for continuously remvoing heat is maintained.
  86. What is infrared thermography? (page 5-26)
    Infrared thermography is an effective way to survey electric switchgear and electrical conduit connections. It detects and records the overheating and thermal agitation on the electrical equipment and connections that usually indicates a loose connection, corrosion, or other pending failure. The infrared-imaging equipment detects infrared energy emitted from an object and converts it to an image displayed on a monitor screen. To document the problem for maintenance and repair action, the location and temperature of the problem area are noted, and photographs are taken of the monitor screen and of the actual problem area.
  87. Why is it important to keep motors clean and adequately ventilated? (page 5-27)
    Temperature is critical to satisfactory operation because the capacity of an electrical conductor or motor is a function of temperature. Motors should be cleaned to prevent the restriction of air passages, and the space surrounding them must be adequately ventilated. In addition, the proepr application of the overload protective devices in motor controllers is essential to protect motors from excessive mechanical loading.
  88. What are the three primary categories of charges for electrical service? (page 5-29)
    • 1. customer charge
    • 2. energy charge
    • 3. demand charge
  89. What are power factor charges? (page 5-33)
    Power factor charges are assessed to a customer with a low power factor.
  90. What are time-of-use charges? (page 5-34)
    Time-of-use metering records the demand during daily selected periods of time, with the electric energy used during those periods charged at different rates. Many utility companies have instituted time-of-use charges as a means for establishing load-management programs. The utility company charges a higher price for electricity used during daily periods of generally high demand throughout its system. Custoemrs that move high loads to off-peak times can lower their utility bill.
  91. What is the demand ratchet? (page 5-40)
    To provide the revenue to pay for the capacity to meet this maximum demand, the electric company may bill each customer for a demand equal to a stated percentage, such as 80%, of the maximum demand during the prior 12 months. Therefore, the biling demand for each month's electric bill is the greater of the actual maximum demand recorded for that month or 80% of the hgihest demand recorded during the previous 12 months. The demand ratchet is the application of a minimum demand - billing demand - in each month's electric bill based on the maximum acutal demand recorded - registered demand - during the previous 12 months. The billing demand is ratcheted up to reflect the highest registered demand. For this reason, energy management places great emphasis on reducing this demand peak.
  92. What is candlepower? (page 6-5)
    The measure of the light intensity of a ray of light at a specific angle to the light source. This light intensity, or candlepower, is measured in candelas. One candela is the intensity of the light produced in one direction by a standard-size burning candle.
  93. What are lumens? (page 6-5)
    The measure of the total output of of light from a light source. One lumen is the amount of light striking a one square foot surface with a light density of one footcandle. Thus, one lumen equals one footcandle per square foot.
  94. What are footcandles? (page 6-5)
    The measure of illuminance, or light density. One footcandle is the density or light level of direct light falling on a one-square-foot surface that is one foot away from the light source.
  95. What is glare? (page 6-8)
    Any brightness from a light source within the field of vision that causes the viewer discomfort; excessive contrast between a light source and surrounding areas that results in impaired vision.
  96. What causes veiling reflections? (page 6-9)
    Veiling reflections result when the light source itself is reflected as a blurred image on a visual task. The effect is obvious on glossy materials, but can also be present on matte-finish paper covered with printing, typing, or handwriting - especially pencil. The veilign reflections cast on a task in this manner are sometimes so subtle that they are not readily visible, but they can cause substantial losses in contrast, and thus in visibility.
  97. How can veiling reflections be eliminated? (page 6-10)
    Veiling reflections can be eliminated by blocking the source, changing the angle of the work surface in relation to the source, changing the reflective characteristics of the surface, or adding a fine mesh screen.
  98. What is reflectance? (page 6-12)
    Reflectance is the ratio of light reflected from a surface (for example, a ceiling) to light hitting the surface. Staying within recommended reflectance ranges will produce a more comfortable visual environment and minimize the need for occupants' eyes to adapt frequently to overly beright or dark room surfaces.
  99. What has the greatest effect on the difficulty of seeing a task? (page 6-14)
    The difficulty of seeing a task is most affected by the size and contast of the detail. To have contrast, the detail must differ in color or in luminance from its background. When contrast is greatest, as with black characters on white paper, visibility is at a maximum. When contrast is low, as with colored paper or the grayed characters found on poor photocopies, visibility is greatly reduced.
  100. When is visibility at its minimum and maximum in relation to contrast? (page 6-14)
    When contrast is greatest, such as black characters on white paper, visibility is at its maximum. When contrast is low, as with colored paper or the grayed characters found on poor photocopies, visibilty is greatly reduced.
  101. What is the relationship between lighting and productivity? (page 6-16)
    Numerous studies have documented a relationship between lighting level and worker productivity. These studies have found that if light levels are lowered, reducing the number of lamps in a fixture (for example, to reduce energy costs), and the same employees continue occupying the space, productivity will significantly drop. Productivity could improve in this same space with the same employees if the space had new, lighter, more reflective finishes; new mroe efficient lighting fixtures; and added task lighting for the working surfaces.
  102. With regard to lighting and worker functions, what two objectives must the property manager strike a balance between? (page 6-16)
    The manager must strike a responsible blaance between two major objectives: economy and productivity.
  103. What is uniform lighting? (page 6-16)
    Offices are generally designed for uniform lighting; that is, ceiling-mounted lighting fixtures arranged in an even pattern in all directions. Uniform lighing provides adequate lighting for any possible arrangement of workstations within the space, allowing for the maximum flexibility in laying out furniture systems.
  104. Compare uniform and nonuniform lighting with regard to cost and workstation arrangement. (page 6-16)
    Uniform lighting provides adequate lighting for any possible arrangement of workstations within the space, allowing for the maximum flexibility in laying out furniture systems.

    A room lit by nonuniform lighting can consume less electric energy and requries fewer fixtures than a uniform lighting system. Close attention to furniture layout is necessary, however, in order to ensure adequate illumination, minimum reflected glare, and adequate task lighting.
  105. What is task lighting? (page 6-17)
    Task lighting is lighting designed and located primarily to illuminate the work surface: the desk, table, or wall surface where writing is done. The benefit of localized task lighting is the reductino of the total energy cost that results from lower general or ambient illumination.
  106. What is the most significant internal heat source in a building? (page 6-20)
    Lighting is the most significant internal heat source in a building.
  107. What can be done to ease the summer cooling load created by lighting? (page 6-21)
    To ease the cooling load created by lighting, heat transfer fixtures return room air to the ceiling plenum. Therefore, about 50% of the heat from lighting does not enter the conditioned space, reducing cooling air volumes required for the space.
  108. What is the basic idea underlying the concept of life cycle costing relating to selecting lighting fixtures and lamps for long-term use? (page 7-2)
    Life cycle cost analysis will help identify the best selection of lighting fixtures and lamps for long-term use. The basic idea underlying the concept of life cycle costing is that purchase price alone is not the sole element of cost. The true cost of a lighting project is better determined by a relative comparison of both purchase cost and future operation and maintenance costs or savings due to factors such as higher operating efficiency.
  109. What is accent lighting? (page 7-5)
    Accent lighting provides an unusual or dramatic effect to accentuate or draw attention to a specific object or area.
  110. What is ambient lighting? (page 7-6)
    Ambient lighting is a general level of illumination. Indirect ambient lighting, rather than typical uniform lighting from downward-facing fixtures, is often used in conjunction with diffused, "soft" general illumination, thus eliminating visual discomfort caused by working in dark surroundings on brightly illuminated visual tasks. The level of ambient lighting should be between one-half and one-third the level of the ask lighting.
  111. List and briefly describe the basic shielding devices. (page 7-9 and 7-10)
    By using a shielding device, each type of fixture controls light in a way that performs the function for which the lamp was designed. Fixtures should be chosen carefully on the basis of the occupational task needs of a space and its occupants. A shielding device can be a lens, diffuser, louver, baffle, or recessed cone. A lens is a formed glass or plastic panel. A diffuser is similar to a lens but has a milk-white glass or plastic panel. A louver is an open metal or plastic grid. Baffles are lamp shades that block direct view of the lamp and thus prevent glare. A recessed cone is a ceiling mounted tapered cylinder whose side walls reflect and focus light from the lamp downward. They are known by several nicknames, such as cans or high-hats.
  112. What is the most common application and advantages of fluorescent lamps? (Page 7-12)
    Fluorescent lamps are usually the most practical source of general illumination for interior commercial spaces because of their low energy, high efficiency, long life, and low overall cost.
  113. What is chromaticity and how is it measured? (page 7-12)
    Color temperature, also called chrmaticity, indicates visual warmth or coolness. Chromaticity is measured in "degrees" Kelvin (K). The lamps used in most commercial buildings typically have chrmaticities of 3,000 K (warm), 3,500 K (moderate), or 4,100 K (cool). The most widely used lamps have either a cool white (4,150 K) or a warm white (3,000 K) temperature.
  114. What are the three types of fluorescent electrical circuits? (page 7-13)
    1. Preheat - used on low-wattage fluorescent lamps and require a separate starter. Preheat lamps blink once or twice when they are first started. Many under-shelf task lights stil use this technology.

    2. Rapid Start - used for most of the 3' and 4' lamps round in offices today. The cathodes are continuously heated in the circuit, providing the longest lamp life, typically from 20,000 to 24,000 hours.

    3. Instant Start - also known as cold start ballast, are primarliy used on 8' lamps, however, some newer electronic ballasts operate 4' lamps with an instant-start circuit. These circuits do not heat the cathodes, but simply apply a high voltage across the lamp to strike the arc. While this is the most electrically efficient way to start a fluorescent lamp, it reduce lamp life by up to 25% from that obtained with a rapid-start cirucuit, because it consumes the emission material much more quickly.
  115. Which lamp can be used to replace a T-12 lamp for more energy-efficiency? (page 7-14)
    T-8 lamps
  116. What are the common types of fixtures for fluorescent lamps? (page 7-18)
    • 1. Recessed troffer
    • 2. Ceiling-mounted wraparound
    • 3. Open reflectors
    • 4. Suspended fluorescent lighting
  117. What are the three common types of HID (high-intensity-discharge) lamps? (page 7-25)
    • 1. Mercury
    • 2. Metal Halide
    • 3. High-Pressure Sodium
  118. What are the earliest and least efficient HID lamps? (Page 7-25)
    Mercury lamps
  119. In what applications are metal halide lamps useful? (page 7-26)
    Metal halide lamps are useful in applications appropriate for compact light sources, such as downlights and indirect lighting. They are also used outdoors in area lighting and building floodlighting.
  120. What is a major limitation of high-pressure sodium lamps? (page 7-26)
    High-pressure sodium lamps are more efficient than the standard metal-halide lamps or mercury vapor lamps, but they must be used where color is not important.

    The light from these lamps has a high proportion of yellow-orange color with a typical CRI of only 22. Because of their efficiency, typical commercial building applications for high-pressure sodium lamps are both outdoors (light streets, parking lots, garages, and buildings) and indoors (industrial lighting) where good color rendition is not as important.
  121. Which lamps are the least efficient source of white light? (page 7-27)
    Standard filament lamps are the least efficient source of white light - fluorescent lamps are four times more efficient. Therefore incandescent lamps cannot economically provide the levels of light typically required in general offices.
  122. What are the four types of tungsten-halogen lamps? (page 7-29)
    • 1. tubular, double-ended with a coil filament
    • 2. tubular, single-ended with a coil filament
    • 3. quartz filament tube sealed in an outer bulb for PAR lamp applications
    • 4. low-voltage (12 V), multifaceted, ellipsoidal reflector
  123. What are the three common fixtures for incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID lamps? (Page 7-31)
    • 1. Open-bottom downlights
    • 2. Closed-bottom downlights
    • 3. Surface-mounted luminous enclosures.
  124. What is group relamping and how can it save money? (page 7-36)
    Group relamping at planned intervals can reduce labor costs to between one-fifth and one-tenth of the cost per lamp for replacing individual lamps at burnout (spot relamping). The time needed for someone to replace a single lamp includes the time a maintenance worker spends determining which particular lamp is to be replaced, getting the new lamp (and hopefully cleaning the fixture), returning the ladder, and disposing of the old lamp. This time is much greater than the time involved for replacing each lamp in an organized replacement of all lamps at once. As relamping is often done at nights and on weekends, when higher hourly wages are paid, the ability to reduce the number of times each fixture must be serviced should be considered as part of the cost-savings equation.

    In the group relamping plan, all lamps are replaced at a preplanned point in the life of the group of lamps. The most economical time to relamp can be predicted on the basis of the known rate of burnouts. Ordinarily, the most economical group-relamping period is at about 70-80% of rated life, when depreciation of lamp quality is appreciable.
  125. Why is cleaning important for lighting fixtures? (page 7-39)
    Significant light losses will result from dirt accumulating on lamps, reflectors, and shielding materials if regular cleaning is not done. Even in very clean conditions, where there is little dirt in the environment and the air system is filtered, light output can drop by 5% per year. Just cleaning the fixture, especially the reflector surfaces adn the lens, will often increase existing light levels between 25%-50%.
  126. What is simple payback? (page 7-45)
    Simple payback is the amount of time in decimal years that will go by before a system upgrade option's energy savings reach the net installation cost (also called the initial cost).
  127. What is benchmarking? (page 8-3)
    Benchmarking is establishing a standard of performance against which something can be compared or measured. By comapring a building's energy intensity to that of similar buildings, building owners or property managers can set performance goals and then develop a plan of action to achieve them.
  128. What areas of a building organization should be represented on an energy team? (pages 8-8 and 8-9)
    • -engineering
    • -purchasing and accounting
    • -public affairs/tenant relations/investor relations
    • -operations and maintenance
    • -building/facilities management
    • -environmental health and safety
    • -corporate real estate and leasing
    • -construction management
    • -contractors and suppliers
    • -utilities
  129. What are the key aspects of assessing energy performance? (page 8-11)
    • -gathering and tracking data on energy performance
    • -setting a baseline used to evaluate future energy use
    • -benchmarking performance against similar buildings
    • -setting goals for future energy performance
  130. What does measuring energy performance at a specific time establish and provide? (page 8-12)
    Measuring energy performance at a specific time establishes a baseline and provides the starting point for setting goals and evaluating future efforts and overall performance.
  131. Once a baseline for a building's energy consumption has been established, what is the next step and why is it critical? (page 8-14)
    Once a baseline for a building's energy consumption has been established, the next step is to set an energy performance goal by estimating the potential for improvement and financial benefits. Setting clear and measurable goals is critical for understanding intended results, developing effective strategies, and reaping financial gains.
  132. What is an audit, and what is an energy audit designed to do? (page 8-15)
    An audit is a methodical examination and review; energy audits are designed to examin energy use and costs.
  133. How does changing the timing, sequence, or approach to cleaning affect energy consumption? (page 8-18)
    Energy consumption associated with cleaning can be significant. The schedule of cleaning operations should be reviewed with energy consumption in mind. Changing the timing or sequence of cleaning can often reduce energy consumption. Daytime cleaning, which eliminates the need to operate lighting and heating or cooling just for cleaners, has been used where it wil not interfere with operations. Typically, cleaning contractors work independently, meaning that someone empties the trash basekts while someone vacuums and someone else dusts. In this approach, each cleaner moves throughout the building at their own pace and lights are shut off once the building has been completed. A nontraditional appraoch is team cleaning. A team cleans an area or floor together, which allows utilities in the area to be turned offa s the cleaning is completed.
  134. To take advantage of potential energy savings, what existing building features and functions should be reviewed? (pages 8-22 and 8-23)
    • Often, features that were incorporated into a building's design to help reduce energy use are abandoned, forgotton, or not used as intended. A review of building plans or a building inspection cacn identify these features. The following steps can be taken.
    • -Equipment start and run times should be revised to ensure maximum efficiency that corresponds with building occupant needs.
    • -As weather conditions change, make sure to review building set points and humidification settings.
    • -Correctly set outdoor temperature reset controls for space-heating systems that move warm air around a designated space. Trial-and-error adjustments can result in lower energy consumption and improved comfort.
    • -Resume night setback of thermostats that have been abandoned. Thermostats should be set at minimal heating and cooling tempreatures for as many hours as is feasibile without compromising daytime comfort.
    • -Check outdoor air damper settings. The sequence and operation of outdoor air dampers should be examined periodically to ensure that the appropriate mixture of outdoor air is being supplied. Be careful to ensure adequate volumes of outside air to meet IAQ standards and building codes.
    • -Optimize computerised EMS (energy management systems). The building's EMS readings should be compared wit hthe equipment's usage to ensure sensors are functioning properly. Often, teh greatest benefit is achieved by fine-tuning EMS settings as hours of operation and temperatures change throughout the year.
    • -Accurately calibrate utility meters. Assuming the building has utility meters, they should be compared fora ccuracy against the energy consumption measured by the utility company.
    • -Optimize electrical demand-limiting opportunities. Reduce electrical demand wherever possible, especially where demand costs are high. By taking steps to increase control of demand, through the installatino of programmable thermostats or other methods to ensure that equipment and systmes are only operating when they are needed, electricity use can be significantly reduced. Increasing control of demand is a trial-and-error process. It is not possible to achieve maximum benefits unless a computer monitors the utility meter.
  135. What is the process for incorporating energy performance into a building's design? (page 8-24)
    • The process outlined below incorporates energy performance into a building's design right from the start.
    • -assemble a multi-disciplinary team
    • -set energy performance goals
    • -make the most of the pre-design phase
    • -confirm that the building design meets the goals
    • -select a qualified construction team
    • -assemble a library of building documentation
    • -train staff on building systems
    • -ensure proper commissioning of the building
  136. Typically, who is responsible for choosing utility rates based on the options available? (page 8-30)
    Because the choice of utility rates is typically the responsibility of the customer, property and facility managers should obtain copies of the rate schedules, criteria, and regulations of all utility suppliers. Each rate schedule usually has what is called an availability clause, which describes the conditions required to qualify for a particular rate. As long as a building meets the criteria of the availability clause, the customer can choose that rate.
  137. Briefly describe a DSM (demand-side management) program. (page 8-32)
    A few utility companies offer DSM programs, which are usually mandated or approved by regulatory agencies and often involve taking advantage of alternative rates. These programs are intended to reduce the consumption of energy, the demand for energy, or both. Most often, they involve offering free advice or subsidizing the purchase and installation of various energy-conserving products. Occasionally, they provide additional rate options, or commissioning existing building services.

    Certain utility companies promote selected products and systems through their DSM programs that are subsidized by the utility company but that are not always aligned with the property owner's needs. Such promotions should be examined carefully in the context of the property's energy management action plan.
  138. Why is it important to check utility bills monthly? (page 8-32)
    One of the most cost effective practices to reduce energy costs is to scrutinize utility bills monthly, as utility companies occasionally make billing errors.
  139. What are several sources of information and advice on improving utility rates and opportunities for reducing energy costs? (page 8-33)
    • -utility companies
    • -fellow utility customers
    • -energy consultants
    • -energy tracking and utility auditing firms
  140. What are the various methods for recovering utility expenses? (page 8-35)
    • In addition to buying utilities at the lowest cost, owners and operators should recover as much of their utility expenses as possible. This can be accomplished through various methods, which apply to all utilities.
    • -submetering
    • -energy rent inclusion
    • -utility cost allocation
    • -tenant utility auditing firms
    • -after-hours charges
    • -excess energy use
    • -common-area cost allocation
    • -utility cost escalation
  141. What two types of balances connected to utilities should the property manager calculate and compare each month? (page 8-36)
    Each month the property manager should calculate two types of balances. These balances compare the quantity and cost of utilities bought with the quantity and cost of utilities submetered. If any utility is completely submetered, then the units of energy bought and the units submetered should balance. These two numbers should agree to within a few percentage poitns each month, when all meters are read on the same day. Balances should be consistent month-to-month.
  142. Compare utility cost allocation with submetering and explain when utility cost allocation is fair to use. (page 8-38)
    Utility cost allocation is less costly than submetering. It requires less equpment - in some cases, no equipment at all. Many state laws on submetering may also apply to utility cost allocation, so check your local laws.

    One approach to utility cost allocation is to prorate utility costs by area occupied (measured in square feet). When the character and hours of energy use are similar for all tenants, this can be a reasonable method. This method is fair only when utility use is uniform. Where use is not uniform, various adjustments are needed. These adjustments are made on the basis of estimates, in which each area to be billed is assigned a certian fraction of the total use of each utility. Every month, the same fraction is applied to the landlord's utility bill to determine each tenant's bill.
  143. What utility is most commonly charged for after-hours use? (page 8-38)
    The most common charge for after-hours use is for heating and cooling.
  144. In a building that is not submetered, how is utility cost escalation usually determined? (page 8-40)
    In a building that is not submetered, utility cost escalation is usually determined as the amount that the current year's cost exceeds the base year's cost. In submetered buildings, there is no need to apply utility cost escalation, provided that the method for billing submeters follows the traditional procedures described above.
  145. Which buildings are usually served by hydraulic and traction elevators? (Page 9-5)
    Buildings with between two and seven elevator stops are typically serviced by hydraulic elevators. The slower speeds of hydraulic elevators are adequate and cost effective when the rise does not exceed seven stops. Buildings with more than seven elevator stops are serviced by the faster traction elevators.
  146. What are peak periods in buildings with elevators? (page 9-6)
    Every building has critical times of the day, called peak periods, when traffic flow is heaviest. Exactly when these times occur and how many of them there are depends on the type of building and its usage. Office buildings, for example, might have heavy elevator traffic at noon, when workers leave for lunch. In an apartment building, however, elevator traffic at noontime might be quite low.
  147. How do elevator professionals measure elevator traffic flow? (page 9-6)
    Elevator professionals measure traffic flow in five-minute intervals. They record these measurements on a flowchart. This chart provides a graphic record of daily traffic flow and becomes a valuable tool for optimizing elevator service. The five-minute period of heaviest traffic is called the five-minute peak period. Measurements taken during this period are used to determine the quality and quantity of service.
  148. How is the quality of elevator service measured? (page 9-7)
    The quality of elevator service is measured according to the average interval. This is the average time between elevator departures from the lobby during a five-minute up-peak period. Before determining the average interval, the round-trip time is calculated. This is the time it takes one elevator to leave the main lobby, run up through the building, make its stops, and return to the lobby and start up again. Dividing the tround-trip time by the number of elevators in the system yields the interval time. Typically high-quality elevator service in a high-rise building wll have a daily average interval of 25-30 seconds.
  149. How is the quantity or handling capacity of an elevator system measured? (page 9-7)
    The quantity or handling capacity of an elevator system is measured by the total number of passengers transported by a group of elevators during the five-minute peak period. An office bulding with good elevator service typically can transport 12% - 12.5% of the bulding's total population during the five-minute peak period.
  150. What are service elevators? (page 9-10)
    Service elevators are intended to transport maintenance materials and building service personnel in buildngs such as hotels and hospitals. The reasons for doing so include the desire to avoid inconveniencing building occupants and to protect the interior decor of the passenger elevators from damage.
  151. What are freight elevators? (page 9-11)
    Freght elevators are constructed to withstand the rigors and rough use assocated with movng heavy materials. They are generally borken down into three classes:

    • -Class A elevators handle the loads normally associated wth hand-truck loading.
    • -Class B elevators handle the loads normally associated with motor vehicle loading.
    • -Class C elevators are strong enough to support the weght of a truck that is driven into the elevator for unloading.
  152. In what type of buildings are hydraulic elevators typically installed? (page 9-13)
    Hydraulc elevators are frequently called low-rise systems. They are found in smaller buldings only requiring service for up to seven stops. They travel at speeds from 100 fpm to 150 fpm. They are principally installed in schools, shoppng malls, hotels, and low-profle office and apartment buildings.
  153. Describe the machine room for a hydraulic elevator. (page 9-14)
    The systems that control a hydraulic elevator are in the machine room, generally located adjacent to the bottom of the shaft. Hydraulc machine rooms typically contan a machine, a controller, a hydraulic fluid reservoir, and ppng that carries hydraulc fluid to the plunger and cylinder.
  154. Describe what the hydraulic elevator pump does during elevator operation and how the direction of the fluid is controlled. (page 9-14)
    During elevator operation, the output of the pump remains constant. The valve assembly controls the amount of fluid pumped into the cylinder or allowed to return to the tank. To rase the car, fluid is pumped through the valve assembly nto the cylnder assembly, causing the piston to rse. To lower the car, fluid is allowed to flow out of the cylunder, through the valve, and back to the tank.
  155. What is the major environmental issue with hydraulic elevators? (page 9-15)
    An environmental issue that continues to be addressed regarding hydraulic elevators is the possbility that oil will leak from a corroded cylinder nto the surrounding ground. To prevent this problem, cylinder shields should be used to protec tthe cylnder and contain oil leakage.
  156. What elevator equipment should be evaluated prior to new construction or before renovation plans are finalized? (pages 9-20 and 9-21)
    • Consideration of the following elevator equipment should be evaluated pror to new construction or before renovation plans are finalized.
    • -DC Drives
    • -AC Drives
    • -Elevator Controller
    • -Elevator Motion Control
  157. Explain the advantages of microprocessor controllers. (page 9-22)
    Modern elevators use microprocessor controllers. These solid-state systems have few moving parts and are extremely reliable. They also require less hoistway wiring than do relay controllers, providing greater reliability. They require a shorter installation time and are less maintenance-intensive.
  158. Why are center-opening doors used in commercial buildings with heavy traffic patterns? (page 9-26)
    Center-opening doors open and close faster, and therefore are used in commercial buildings with heavy traffic patterns.
  159. What is traveling cable? (page 9-30)
    All communications between the car and the machine room equipment travel over a bundle of conductors known as traveling cable. One end of the traveling cable is tied to hitch under the car frame and is connected to the car operating panel and to equipment on top of the car. The other end is tied to a hitch halfway up the hoistway. From there it runs within a wiring trough to the car controller in the machine room.
  160. What is terminal dispatching? (page 9-31)
    Terminal dispatching offers an improvement over manual dispatching. In a terminal dispatching system, the elevators run on a present schedule utilizing computer controls and sophisticated scheduling software.
  161. What is multiple zoning? (page 9-31)
    In a multiple-zoning system, the building is divided into zones, with an elevator programmed to park in each zone during off-peak periods. WHen a hall call is registered, the electronic controller dispatches the elevator from the nearest zone in response. This reduces the time that passengers spend waiting for an elevator to arrive.
  162. What is computerized dispatching? (page 9-32)
    Computerized dispatching, using nsoftware-based control systems, provides unmatched dispatching efficiency. A computer in the elevator controller continuously evaluates the status of all elevators and decides which elevator will respond to a particular call on the basis of predicted and real variations in building traffic. This method of dispatching is proving to be the most consistent, reliable, and cost-effective method.
  163. Explain why escalators are usually installed in pairs and how their direction can be changed. (page 9-36)
    Escalators are usually installed in pairs for two-way service most of the day. For greater capacity, such as when people come to work in the morning, all escalators may be oeprated upward; then, when offices close at the end of the day, all escalators can carry workers down.
  164. Under what conditions do escalators provide the best service? (page 9-36)
    Escalators provide the best service for carrying steady streams of traffic for limited distances. People must have ample space at the entry and exit landings of the escalator. Because an escalator moves people into an area much more rapidly than they could climb a stairway or walk through a narrow doorway, a restricted unloading area may crowd people, causing hazardous results.
  165. What are the six objectives of a successful elevator maintenance program? (pages 10-2 and 10-3)
    • 1. Provide dependable service
    • 2. Preserve capital investment
    • 3. Ensure passenger safety
    • 4. Comply with applicable codes
    • 5. Predict and control costs
    • 6. Maintain optimum performance.
  166. Which equipment is usually located in a traction elevator machine room? (page 10-4)
    The elevator machine room is the heart of the elevator system. It contains the elevator hoisting machines, motor-generator sets or solid-state power supply, and control equipment.
  167. Which equipment is usually located in a traction elevator's hoistway? (page 10-4)
    The hoistway contains the guide rails on which the elevator car and counterweight run; the corridor doors, hangers, door locks, and operating mechanisms; switches and other operating and safety devices; and space for cables and other equipment. The hoistway pit houses the care and counterweight buffers, cable pulleys and tensioning devices, and limit switches. The overhead of the hoistway may contain the overspeed governor mechanism and limit switches, with space for the safety of personnel working on top of the elevator car.
  168. Where is most maintenance of car and counterweight buffers, rope pulleys, corridor door hangers and locks, switches, and safety devices performed? (page 10-5)
    Inside the hoistway and outside the elevator cab.
  169. What is the acceptance date for a new elevator installation, and what are the concerns associated with it? (pages 10-6 and 10-7)
    The acceptance date for a new elevator installation can have different meanings to the parties engaged in a facility construction contract with a general contractor (who services the equipment during a 2-3 year construction process). To the elevator contractor, acceptance occurs when the acceptance form is signed by a party responsible under the contract agreement. As for the property manager, acceptance of the new elevator installation should be close to the date of acceptance of the new building. This often overlooked discrepancy should be clarified between the owner and the general contractor.
  170. In what five areas should a prospective elevator maintenance provider be prequalified? (page 10-8)
    • 1. Technical experience
    • 2. Workforce
    • 3. Facilities
    • 4. Support
    • 5. Financial soundness
  171. Who can provide elevator maintenance? (page 10-10)
    Elevator maintenance can be provided by equipment manufacturers, other manufacturers, nonmanufacturers, or on a do-it-yourself basis if qualified personnel are on staff.
  172. Describe a full maintenance contract for elevator maintenance. (page 10-12)
    Under a full maintenance contract, the manager contracts with an elevator service company to take total responsibility for the elevator equipment identified in the contract. This service is sold as insurance, intended to eliminate all of the manager's concerns relating to elevator problems. If there is an elevator problem, regardless of size, it is covered under the contract. The contract is preventive in concept; the elevators should continue to provide the same degree of performance that existed when the equipment was accepted. In theory, even after years of service, the operating condition of all equipment should be as good as it was when new.
  173. Who is responsible for handling accident claims under a full maintenance contract? (page 10-12)
    Under a full maintenance contract, an elevator maintenance company is responsible for defending itself against accident claims.
  174. Which items are typically excluded from an elevator maintenance contract? (page 10-17)
    • 1. Refinishing
    • 2. Repairing or replacing any components in the elevator cab, its floor, floor covering, and sills
    • 3. The hoistway enclosures, doors, frames, and sills
    • 4. Hydraulic cylinders, casings, and concealed hydraulic piping
    • 5. Replacement of all lightbulbs, fluorescent tubes, and associated fixtures used for cab illumination
    • 6. Batteries for emergency lighting, fans, any power units or components installed or connected for emergency standby power use
    • 7. Main line power switches, breakers, and feeders to control equipment
  175. What circumstances usually result in additional charges under an elevator maintenance contract? (page 10-20)
    Unless overtime callbacks are included in the service contract, the contractor may charge the overtime differential portion, for time door-to-door (generally three hours if travel time is to a location outside of a major metropolitan area) plus mileage, for overtime repairs.
  176. What are the four types of records and reports that an elevator maintenance company can provide? (page 10-22)
    • 1. callback and repair records
    • 2. annual equipment surveys
    • 3. repair recommendation reports
    • 4. performance reports
  177. What are the five key improvement areas of elevator modernization? (page 10-24)
    • 1. performance
    • 2. appearance
    • 3. technology
    • 4. code compliance
    • 5. safety
  178. Briefly explain what a group overly system is. (page 10-26)
    The group overlay system is a microprocessor-based enhancement of existing elevator control equipment and, therefore, requires less equipment to be replaced. Most overlay systems include individual car controllers and a group dispatcher. The group dispatcher usually contains the same dispatching logic used in new systems. In most cases, a system diagnostic panel is also provided at this time. A complete overlay system (operation management software) costs about 65% less than a totally new elevator-control system. This type of upgrade can produce traffic-handling improvements from 20% to 40% over an existing, older electromechanical-control system.
  179. What are some examples of elevator peripheral equipment that can be modernized? (page 10-27)
    Modernizing peripheral equipment can also improve elevator performance. The peripheral components of an elevator system should not be ignored. Examples of peripheral equipment that may require modernizing include door operators, roller guides, door detector systems, and emergency lighting.
  180. What are some examples of elevator equipment that can be modernized to meet building codes? (page 10-27)
    Building codes vary from one locale to another, so it is impossible to give a definitive list of modernizations that may be required to meet code in any one area. Some typical examples include upgrades to meet fire service, emergency power, and emergency communication regulations.
  181. How does visual modernization provide an economic benefit? (page 10-28)
    In addition to its aesthetic improvement, visual modernization can provide an economic benefit. Because many materials used today are more resistant to wear and vandalism than those available in the past, visual modernization can reduce maintenance and repair costs.
  182. What happens first when special emergency service is initiated in an elevator system? (page 10-30)
    Phase 1, initiated by a lobby key switch or fire sensors, return the elevators nonstop to the main floor and parks them there with doors open until the emergency is over. Car and hall buttons and door reopening devices for power-operated doors no longer work.

    An elevator moving up reverses direction without opening its doors and returns to the main floor without stopping for car or hall calls. Elevators stopped at upper floors close their doors and return to the main floor, also without stopping for car or hall calls. Automatic elevators operated by an attendant receive an audible and visual signal for the attendant to take the elevator nonstop to the main floor. This prevents occupied elevators from stopping at fire-involved floors and makes them available for firefighters.
  183. Briefly explain what to do when an elevator stops between floors with passengers in the car. (page 10-32)
    • 1. Immediately summon a qualified elevator professional and advise him or her of the shutdown. Elevator professionals know the equipment and the hazards involved in removing passengers from a stalled car. They can discover the cause of the shutdown and decide whether the trouble can be remedied quickly or not.
    • 2. Use the intercom system to the elevator to reassure passengers that help is on the way. Tell them that they are safe as long as they do not panic or try to open the doors without specific directions from qualified personnel. Additionally, reassure them that there is plenty of air and the interior of the elevator is designed for passenger safety. Modern elevators have automatic safety equipment that protects passengers by preventing car movement unless conditions are safe for operation. Attempting to bypass safety devices may result in injury to passengers. If there is no direct communication system to the elevator car, a member of the building staff should locate the elevator in the hoistway and reassure the passengers through the nearest hoistway door.
  184. Where does dirst most quickly accumulate, and why? (page 11-2)
    Because airborne dirt is subject to gravity, the surfaces that most quickly accumulate dirt are the horizontal or nearly horizontal surfaces that face upward. Thus, routine cleaning is undertaken primarily for removing dirt from horizontal surfaces, such as floors and the tops of furniture, fixtures, and equipment.
  185. What are the four levels of cleaning quality? (page 11-3)
    • 1. Basic cleaning
    • 2. Prestige cleaning
    • 3. Clinical cleaning
    • 4. Specialized cleaning
  186. What dictates the level of cleanliness for a given area? (page 11-4)
    Although people hesitate to say that different levels of cleanliness are acceptable for different areas, the function of an area often dictates the level of cleanliness that must be maintained. Food service areas, computer areas, and laboratory rooms, by their nature, demand a stringent standard of clinical cleanliness. In addition, areas that serve the clients of a business are sometimes expected to be maintained according to a higher standard than that expected in employee work spaces.
  187. What are the basic facilities and tools that a cleaning staff must be equipped with? (page 11-10)
    • 1. a base of operations
    • 2. equipment and supplies
    • 3. uniforms and identification
  188. Ideally, where should central and storage cleaning facilities be located? (page 11-11)
    These facilities should be grouped together and located adjacent to a service elevator. Placing facilities close to an elevator helps control the cleaning crew. They should be traveling by freight elevator at all times. If the facilities are close to the passenger elevators, then the cleaning staff may use this method of travel instead. Therefore control of elevator access is important to maintaining building appearance.
  189. Why are recognizable uniforms and photo identification badges for cleaning workers important? (page 11-11)
    Cleaning workers should wear recognizable cleaning uniforms and a photo identification badge so that occupants can easily distinguish them. Uniforms for employees also help to create a group identity, which contributes to positive attitutdes toward the job.
  190. What are the five basic types of cleaning contracts? (Page 11-21)
    • 1. fixed-rate contracts
    • 2. cost-plus-percentage-fee contracts
    • 3. cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts
    • 4. management-fee contracts
    • 5. incentive contracts
  191. Briefly describe a fixed-rate cleaning contract. (page 11-22)
    A fixed-rate contract, also called a fixed-periodic-rate contract, can be based on either a grand total or cost per unit area, and can include a quality definition or frequency specifications. This type of contract is the one most frequently used. It is available in two forms: (1) uncontrolled input and (2) controlled demand.

    Most common is the uncontrolled-input form. The contractor agrees to meet a specification stating what is to be cleaned and how often or how well. But, the contractor is not required to provide a stated number of work hours and this is usually not required to have on hand a stated equantity or type of environment.

    The second variation of the fixed-price contract has a controlled-demand requirement. In addition to the other requirements listed above, the contract requires a minimum number of work hours. When the fixed-price contract is used, this controlled-demand requirement is preferred.
  192. Briefly describe a management-fee cleaning contract. (page 11-23)
    With a management-fee cleaning contract, the customer provides the personnel, equipment, and supplies, and the contractor provides the management and usually the supervision for the work. This type of contract may result from a union contract requiring the personnel to remain on the customer's payrol or from the customer's interest in al personnel in the organization receiving the same fringe benefits and opportunities as other employees.
  193. What factors normally influence cleaning costs? (pages 11-24 and 11-25)
    • Things that normally, but not always, add to the cleaning cost per square foot are:
    • 1. Age
    • 2. Height
    • 3. Labor Cost Area
    • 4. Location
    • 5. Market Conditions
    • 6. Size
  194. List and briefly describe the four common forms of organizing cleaning tasks. (page 11-25)
    • There are four common forms of organizing cleaning tasks that are used by cleaning contractors.
    • 1. Area Assignments - the worker performs all repetitive tasks in a given building area, such as part of a floor or two or three floors. This form of work can be most easily measured, inspected, and supervised properly.
    • 2. Job Specialization - the worker does a limited type of work, such as carpet shampooing or floor striping, in many different areas. A tema of three cleaners, headed by a group leader may move around the building, augmenting repetitive area assignment work. This form is typically used for bathroom cleaning while the remainder of the building is area cleaned.
    • 3. Team Cleaning - Three or four cleaners will move through a building doing all cleaning tasks. It is difficult to establish responsibility and good morale in this type of activitiy, and a team often cleans at the rate of the slowest worker.
    • 4. Gang Cleaning - This is a special form of cleaning, where a large number of cleaners enter an area for a limited period of time. Although it is not always efficient, it may be required because the bilding may only be available for cleaning for a short period of time (as is often the case in public stadiums and arenas)
  195. What are the five basic supervisory duties for cleaning workers? (page 11-28)
    • Supervisory duties include the following:
    • -assigning
    • -training
    • -inspecting
    • -retraining
    • -disciplining
  196. What three basic supervisory duties for cleaning workers are most often neglected? (page 11-29)
    Training, inspecting, and retraining are the most important supervisory duties - and the most often neglected.
  197. What are the four basic types of cleaner training? (page 11-32)
    • 1. orientation training
    • 2. on-the-job training
    • 3. classroom training
    • 4. vendor training programs
  198. What are the four ways to determine whether cleaners are performing their tasks adequately? (page 11-33)
    • 1. regular inspections by supervisors
    • 2. complaints from occupants
    • 3. customer surveys
    • 4. property manager inspections
  199. What accounts for 90% of the dirt deposited on exterior windows? (page 12-3)
    Airborne dirt.
  200. What is the best cleaner to use to dissolve extremely difficult dirt deposits on exterior windows? (page 12-4)
    Hydrofluoric or hydrochloric acid and running water, as a last resort, is the best cleaner to use for dirt that is most difficult to remove. This cleanser must be rinsed away liberally with running water or removed immediately with a vacuum squeegee.
  201. Why should ammonia and ammonia solutions not be used on solar films on windows? (page 12-5)
    While an ammonia solution is effective in removing routine dirt from glass, it must not be used on solar film applied to glass. Consequently, before tinted glass is cleaned, it is important to determine the method of tint installation and the manufacturer's recommended procedure for cleaning. Most manufactured tinted glass has the tint in th eglass. Solar films installed on-site, however, are usually installed on the interior surface of the glass. Because ammonia breaks down the solar film and makes it soft, ammonia solutions should not be used to clean this interior film. Brushes can scratch the film surface and acids damage solar window film, so they should be avoided as well.
  202. What is a squeegee? (page 12-6)
    A squeegee is a rubber blade from 6" to 48" in length mounted in a stainless-steel, brass, or aluminum channel with a handle. The handle accepts a pole to extend the range of use and may also pivot to add flexibility. A squeegee is used to remove water-based cleaning solutions and leave the glass dry.
  203. What should be used to remove stubborn particles and films such as paint from glass? (page 12-6)
    Scrapers and blades are used to remove stubborn particles and films, such as paint, that adhere to glass.
  204. What is the maximum extended height for extension ladders? (page 12-8)
    The maximum extended height for extension ladders is 50 feet.
  205. Who is responsible for maintaining a permanent window cleaning installation in safe working condition? (page 12-12)
    Maintaining a permanent installation in a safe working condition is the responsibility of the property owner or manager.
  206. What is a typical schedule for window cleaning? (Page 12-13)
    The following is a typical schedule for window cleaning:

    • 1. Entrances & Storefronts - daily
    • 2. Other Street-Level Windows - monthly
    • 3. Inside of Upper-Elevation Windows - annually
    • 4. Outside of Upper-Level Windows - twice per year
    • 5. Skylights - annually or less
  207. Who has the responsibility for training contracted window-cleaning employees? (page 12-15)
    A property of facility manager should not control window cleaning operatiosn; they are the responsibility of the window-cleaning contractor. However, the manager should review these operations and require compliance with regulatiosn of ASME, ANSI, OSHA< and other federal, state, and local jurisdictions in the US.
  208. Who is responsible for maintaining a log of inspections and completed work for contracted window cleaning? (page 12-17)
    Contract requirements should specify that a written log be maintained by the contractor's personnel and available to the manager, detailing the cotnractor's inspectinos of all rigging equipment, as well as the completed work.
  209. Who should be called to gain access to a stranded worker on a suspended scaffold during window cleaning? (page 12-17)
    A glass company should be called to remove a window panel and gain access to a stranded worker.
  210. What is the most cost-effective way to protect steel sheet metal from rust and corrosion? (page 12-19)
    Paint is the most cost-effective way to protect steel sheet metal from rust and corrosion.
  211. What are architectural-grade metals? (page 12-19)
    Architectural-grade metals provide an aesthetic appearance and are used to create visual effects while performing a function.
  212. What metal has become the major material used to clad building curtain walls because it is soft, lightweight, and architectrually strong? (page 12-21)
    Aluminum is a soft and light, but very strong, metal that has become the major material used to clad building curtain walls. Durable and less costly than either bronze or stainless steel, aluminum can be cast and is used occasionally to replace deteriorated cast-iron sections.
  213. What are the benefits of an anodized finish on aluminum? (page 12-21)
    Aluminum can be anodized, or coated with a factory-applied electrolytic finish related to the plating process. Anodized finsihes are very hard and can be applied in a limited range of colors. Anodizing gives aluminum a durable finish that can be maintained economically if serviced properly.
  214. What is one of the most beneficial characteristics of corten steel? (page 12-23)
    Corten steel is virtually maintenenace-free and is an excellent product to use above the ground floor of a building as logn as it is out of the way and not subject to wear or vandalism.
  215. If corten steel is vandalized or damaged, what is the usual treatment? (page 12-23)
    If corten steel is damaged, its crust must be removed completely. The exposed steel will then go through the oxidizing process again but will not reach a uniform color for several years.
  216. What is the guiding criterion in selecting lobby metals? (page 12-27)
    The guiding criterion in selecting lobby metals is the ability to repair and refinish them if they are damaged.
  217. Why is anodiozed aluminum infrequently used in buidling lobbies? (page 12-28)
    Anodized aluminum is infrequently used in a building lobby, except for column covers, window frames, and larger panels, as on staircases and escalator enclosures. As mentioned above, damage to anodized aluminum presents a metal maintenance challenge. Anodized aluminum has a very hard surface that can only be applied in teh factory. Once the finish is damaged or scratched, the damaged area must be sanded and filled with a fiberglass material. This area is then prime-coated and painted to match the original metallic finish as closely as possible. Matching can be a problem. If the damage is confined to a small area, that one spot will be different in texture and sheen, and this condition may ncecessitate repainting a much larger area than just the damaged portion.
  218. Why is stainless steel commonly used as the accent metal for an elevator cab interior? (page 12-28)
    Elevator cabs often use either bronze or stainles steel as the accent metal for doors, door jambs, control panels, handrails, baseboard, and other parts of the cab interior. The reason for selecting these metals is their pure metal characteristics. If an interior cab door is damaged or vandalized, a scratch can normally be removed and the metal refinished to its original condition.
  219. What are the eight functional uses of plants in landscaping? (page 13-5)
    • 1. define space
    • 2. provide a sense of privacy
    • 3. supply shade
    • 4. block wind
    • 5. absorb sound
    • 6. curtail erosion
    • 7. reduce runoff
    • 8. provide on-site conaminant filtration
  220. What three soil conditions should be considered in preparation for planting and plant selection? (page 13-8)
    • 1. pH
    • 2. drainage
    • 3. nutrients
  221. What is the key to successful planting? (page 13-9)
    Preparation of the soil is key to succesful planting. The investment in a plant should be matched by preparation of the soil and the size of the hole it in which it is planted.
  222. What is xeriscape? (page 13-15)
    Xeriscape is a landscape design concept using locally grown, native plants that require little or no supplemental irrigation beyond normal rainfall amounts.
  223. What are the seven components of landscape maintenance? (page 13-16)
    • 1. watering
    • 2. fertilizing
    • 3. mulching
    • 4. weeding
    • 5. lawn mowing
    • 6. disease and pest control
    • 7. pruning
  224. What is the most essential element for plant growth? (page 13-16)
    Watering, more formally called irrigatino, is the most essential element for growth. The important goal is to supply water before plants show signs of wilting, yet not to overwater, because wet soil restricts root development.
  225. What are the most basic guidelines for watering? (page 13-16)
    The important goal is to supply water before plants show signs of wilting, yet do not overwater, because wet soil restricts root development. The top inch of soil should be dry before plants are watered again, and then enough water should be applied to penetrate deeply. Shallow watering that produces shallow roots and weak plants should be avoided. Roots develop and grow in the presence of water, air, and nutrients.
  226. What is the major factor in the prevalence of plant diseases? (page 13-22)
    Climate is a major factor in the prevalence of plant diseases. In areas where high humidity and other plant stresses are present, plant diseases multiply. Where the humidity is low and the weather is dry, plant diseases seldom proliferate.
  227. What are the three basic components of flexible (asphalt) pavement? (page 13-28)
    • 1. subgrade
    • 2. base
    • 3. asphalt
  228. Why is ventilation important in enclosed parking garages? (page 13-30)
    Ventilation prevents the buildup of carbon monoxide, which can be fatal in concentrations.
  229. What is the primary need for plumbing in parking facilities? (page 13-31)
    Drainage is the primary need for plumbing in parking facilities.
  230. What is electricity used for in parking facilities, and which systems should have an emergency backup? (pages 13-31 and 13-32)
    The electrical system in a parking facility provides lighting and powers ventilation fans, sump pumps, overhead doors and gates, alarm systems, elevators, and parking controls.
  231. What are the three types of parking management? (page 13-35)
    • 1. in-house
    • 2. lease
    • 3. management contract
  232. Briefly describe self-parking. (page 13-37)
    Self-parking can be random or assigned. With random self-parking, a customer enters a parking facility and parks in any available space. The customer locks the car, takes the keys, and should aslo take the parking ticket. If the parking ticket is left in the car, a thief could turn in the ticket and exit with the vehicle more easily.

    With assigned self-parking, regular parkers have the same assigned space every day. Again, the customer should lock the car and take the keys and ticket.
  233. Briefly describe attendant parking. (page 13-37)
    To maximize space in a parking facility, cars are often parked in front of otehr cars, blocking them in. Attendants may park the cars, or customers may park themselves. Customers receive a claim check from an attendant to identify the car when the customer returns. Parking attendants must keep the keys to cars that block other cars. Attendant parking is often referred to as modified valet parking.
  234. What are the four basic methods used to control parking and its revenue? (page 13-38)
    • 1. layout
    • 2. traffic flow
    • 3. equipment
    • 4. revenue control systems
  235. What are the categories of revenue-control systems for parking facilities? (page 13-43)
    • 1. manual
    • 2. permit
    • 3. monthly
    • 4. credit card
    • 5. debit card
  236. What are the basic components of electronic monthly parking? (page 13-44)
    Electronic monthlyh parking systems use coded access cards, card readers, entrance and exit gates, and a centralized computer. These systems are most appropriate with a large number of regular non-cash customers.
  237. What is the key to safety and security in parking facilities? (page 13-46)
    Lighting is key to security and safety. A dark facility attracts criminals because they are less likely to be seen, whereas a well-lit facility may discourage criminals from coming on site. A well-lit facility is also easier to drive and walk through and is more inviting to potential customers.
  238. If the parking operator holds the keys to a customer's car, who is usually liable in the event of a claim? (page 13-48)
    In most cases, if the parking operator holds the keys to a customer's car, the operator is liable for the car and its contents. The liability is present regardless of whether the operator or a third party damages or breaks into the car.
  239. What is likely to have the biggest impact on the types of pests encountered in and around a building? (page 14-2)
    The region of the country in which a building is located will have a major impact on the types of pests encountered.
  240. List the factors that will influence the types of pests that a building is likely to experience. (pages 14-2 and 14-3)
    • 1. Location of the building
    • 2. Exterior landscaping
    • 3. Interior plantscaping
    • 4. Type of business
    • 5. Level of sanitation
    • 6. Personal pest problems
    • 7. Nearby pest pressures
  241. Which types of pests commonly infest and breed within structures? (page 14-6)
    Pests that commonly infest and breed within structures include cockroaches, fruit flies, fungus gnats, rodents (mice and rats), and termites.
  242. In most areas of the US, bird control (other than exclusion) is limited to which types of birds? (page 14-12)
    Bird control, other than exclusion, is legally restricted to pigeons, starlings, and sparrows in most areas of the US.
  243. What are the three major reasons for selecting IPM (integrated pest management)? (page 14-15)
    • 1. To prevent pest situations before they occur, through cultural and mechancial changes.
    • 2. To reduce pesticide usage and exposure within and around the building.
    • 3. To reduce emergency expenditures by focusing on proactive preventive measures rather than on reactive pesticide applications.
  244. What is the key difference between IPM and other methods of pest management when it comes to the property manager/pest management expert relationship? (page 14-18)
    One key difference between IPM and other methods of pest management is the type of relationship that exists between the client and the vendor. In tradtional pest management programs, a client typically looks to the vendor to take responsibility for acting to solve the pest problem. In an IPM program, the client actually becomes the pest control vendor's partner and is actively involved in helping to resolve pest problems by implementing recommmendations given by the pest control vendor. The pest management expert essentially becomes a consultant and less a pesticide applicator, providing recommendations on maintenance, sanitation, and environmental changes for pest prevention.
  245. What are the three major factors affecting the success of an IPM program? (page 14-19)
    • - proper education of the property manager and occupants in IPM philosophies
    • - the level of knowledge and expertise of the pest management technician
    • - the degree of implementation of cultural, mechanical, and structural recommendations
  246. What should a property manager consider when deciding whether to use in-house personnel or a pest management vendor? (page 14-20)
    • - Should the program be designed to prevent prests or to react to pest problems as they occur?
    • - Should the program emphasize the use of insecticides as the first line of defense, or are nonchemical measures preferred?
    • - Should the program emphasize inspections and identification of problesm followed by specific recommendatinos, or should it be limited, for example, to regular applications of traditional pesticides to baseboards?
    • - Should an IPM program be used?
  247. What are the general roles of a building occupant in a pest management program? (pages 14-20 and 14-21)
    • 1. Cooperating with and understanding the program's objectives.
    • 2. Collecting pest samples.
    • 3. Communicating with the pest management expert about pest problems.
    • 4. Following recommendations made by the pest management expert.
  248. What explanations should be given to a building occupant to facilitate willingness to obtain a pest sample? (page 14-21)
    • - By getting a sample, the control process can be accelerated.
    • - With positive identification, the pest management expert can determine the appropriate control methods for the specific pest problem
    • - Pesticide use can be reduced, reducing the occupant's pesticide exposure as well.
    • - A long-term solution to the problem can be developed.
  249. How does the property manager's role differ from the building occupant's role in a pest management program? (page 14-22)
    The manager shares the same roles as the occupants, with several differences. The manager has a higher level of communication with the expert regarding pest problems and potential solutions. In addition, although the pest management expert is responsible for providing the manager with all possible alternatives, the manager must ultimately decide on the course of action that the pest management expert will take. The manager also bears greater responsibility for implementing recommendations regarding structural change, sanitation, and other areas for which the pest management expert is not responsible.
  250. What are some innovative technologies for pest control brough about by the increased regulation of pesticides and pesticide applications? (page 14-25)
    • -baiting
    • -climate control
    • -vacuuming
  251. What is a waste generator? (page 15-2)
    The organization that produces waste or turns material into waste.
  252. What is solid waste? (page 15-3)
    Any discarded (abandoned, disposed of, recycled) material; includes hazardous as well as non-hazardous waste. The legal and regulartory definition of solid waste is very broad. In addition to residential trash, commonly known as MSW (municipal solid waste), the term also includes wastes generated by restaurants, office buidlings, and similar business establishements (commercial waste), manufacturing companies and wastewater treatment plants (industrial waste), and waste generated by building or tearing down buildings and other structures (construction and demolition debris, also known as C&D waste). Even hazardous and medical wastes are considered to be solid wastes, but they are more strictly regulated by federal agencies and the states.
  253. Briefly explain OHSA's definition of regulated medical waste. (page 15-5)
    Regulated waste means liquid or semiliquid blood or other potentialy infectious materials; contaminated items that would release blood or other potentially infectious materials in a liquid or semi-liquid state i compressed; items that are caked with dried blood or other potentially infectious materials and are capable of releasing these materials during handling; contaminated sharps; and pathological or microbiological wastes containing blood or other potentially infectious materials.
  254. What is a regulated generator? (page 15-5)
    Regulated generators are those generators that produce 220 lb. of hazardous waste pe rmotnh or more than 1/2 lb. of acutely hazardous waste per month.
  255. What is a waste audit? (page 15-7)
    A waste audit is an analysis conducted periodically by a proeprty owner or manager in conjunction with a waste service company to evaluate and predict the occuants' current and future waste streams.
  256. What are the four main types of large waste storage containers? (page 15-8)
    • 1. front-load containers
    • 2. rear-load containers
    • 3. roll-off containers
    • 4. stationary compactors
  257. What type of waste is most appropriate for front-load containers? (page 15-9)
    Front-load containers are appropriate for such low-density wastes as paper, food, and garbage.
  258. What type of waste is mos appropriate for roll-off containers? (page 15-11)
    Businesses and institutions with bulky, noncompactable wastes - such as wooden pallets, sawdust, paper, and other materials - are best served by roll-off containers.
  259. What is one big disadvantage of open-top roll-off containers as compared to front-load containers and closed compactors? (page 15-11)
    As open-top boxes, rolll-off containers are far less efficient at controlling pests than are either front-load containers or closed compactors.
  260. What are some space considerations with large waste containers? (page 15-12)
    A waste storage area to accommodate containers and collection vehicles should be incorporated into new buidling design and construction. The surface of the waste storage area should be constructed of concrete, not blacktop material, because blacktop surfaces are easily destroeyd by truck traffic and container movement. Ample service space must be allowed in or near the parking area for storing wastes in any of the container types mentioned above. The containers should never be positioned underground, and they must be surrounded by enough unoccupied area to give collection vehicles a sufficient turning radius.
  261. What are the three main steps of waste recovery, or recycling? (page 15-17)
    • 1. separation
    • 2. processing
    • 3. marketing
  262. What is the most common recyclable business item and the largest component of solid waste? (page 15-18)
    The most common recyclable business item and the largest component of solid waste by weight is paper.
  263. What are the two categoires of plastic bottles? (page 15-20)
    Plastic bottles and containers can be divided into two categories: HDPE (high-density polyethylne) and PET (polethylene terephthalate). HDPE is commonly used to produce milk, detergent, and shanmpoo bottles and the base cups for plastic soft-drink bottles. PET is a plastic resin used primarily to make soft-drink bottles, peanut butter containers, and salad dressing packaging.
  264. Other than identifying the categories and volumes of waste generated by occupants, what does a waste audit do? (page 15-21)
    A waste audit not only identifies the categories and volumes of waste generated by occupants, but also indicates the type and size of recycling program that should be implemented.
  265. What should a reliable reycling vendor provide? (page 15-22)
    A reliable recycling vendor is critical to implementing and continuing a successful recycling program. The selected vendor should provide educational programs for occupants and promotional opportunities for the building.
  266. What should be done to ensure maximum participation by occupants in a recycling program? (page 15-23)
    A successful recycling program requires educated occupants. Most people are interested in recycling efforts. If occupants are uninformed about the program, participation will not reach maximum levels, and the full benefit of recylcing will not be realized.