Medical Terminology Chapter 8

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Medical Terminology Chapter 8
2013-06-20 18:51:30

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  1. axial skeleton
    forms the central bony structure of the body around which other parts move.  Consists of the bones of the head chest and back.
  2. appendicular skeleton
    consists of the bones of the shoulder, upper extremities, hips, and lower extremities.
  3. suture
    the line where one cranial bone meets another
  4. frontal bone
    forms the forehead and top of the cranium
  5. parietal bones
    form the upper sides and upper posterior part of the cranium
  6. sagittal suture
    runs from front to back
  7. occipital bone
    forms the posterior base of the cranium
  8. foramen magnum
    large, round opening through which the spinal cord passes to join the brain
  9. temporal bones
    form the lower sides of the cranium.
  10. mastoid process
    a projection from the temporal bone just behind the external ear canal
  11. styloid process
    a point of attachment for tendons to the muscles of the tongue and pharynx and for ligaments of the hyoid bone in the throat
  12. sphenoid bone
    a large, irregularly shaped bone, forms part of the central base and sides of the cranium and posterior walls of the eye sockets.
  13. ethmoid bone
    forms the posterior nasal septum that divides the nasal cavity into the right and left sides and forms the medial walls of the eye sockets
  14. vomer
    a narrow wall of bone that forms the inferior part of the nasal septum and continues posteriorly to join the sphenoid bone
  15. lacrimal bones
    small, flat bones within the eye sockets
  16. zygomatic bone
    forms each cheek bone and the edge of the eye socket
  17. maxilla
    the upper jaw bone
  18. palatine bones
    small, flat bones that form the posterior hard palate
  19. mandible
    the lower jaw bone
  20. ossicles
    three tiny bones in the inner ear:  the malleus, iincus, and stapes
  21. hyoid bone
    a flat, u-shaped bone in the anterior neck
  22. manubrium
    the body of the sternum, and the posterior tip or xiphoid process
  23. costochondral joint
    where the cartilage meets the rib
  24. cervical column
    24 vertebrae
  25. cervical vertebrae
  26. thoracic vertebrae
  27. lumbar vertebrae
  28. sacrum
    a group of five fused vertebrae that are not individually numbered, except for S1
  29. spinous process
  30. a long, bony projection that juts out in the midline along a person's back
  31. transverse processes
    bony projections to each side of the vertebra
  32. foramen
    the hold through which the spinal cord passes
  33. nucleus pulposus
    a gelatinous substance that fills each disk
  34. clavicle
    a thin, rodlike bone on each side of the anterior neck
  35. scapula
    a triangular-shaped bone on either side of the spinal column in the upper back
  36. acromion
    a flat projection on the scapula that connects to the clavicle
  37. glenoid fossa
    a shallow depression where the head of the humerus joins the scapula to make the shoulder joint
  38. humerus
    the long bone in the upper arm
  39. radius
    one of the two bones in the forearm on the thumb sign
  40. ulna
    lies on the little finger side of the forearm
  41. olecranon
    a large, square projection that forms the point of the elbow
  42. carpal bones
    two rows of bones in the wrist
  43. metacarpal
    five individual bones in the hand
  44. phalanges
    each finger contains three individual bones, except the thumb
  45. ilium
    the most superior part of the hip bones
  46. iliac crest
    a broad, flaring rim the forms the outer part of the illium
  47. acetabulum
    the deep socket of the hip joint
  48. ischium
    the most inferior of the hip bones.
  49. pubis
    a small, bridgelike bone
  50. pubic symphysis
    a nearly immobile joint that has a cartilage pad between the bone ends
  51. tarsal bones
    seven bones of the ankle
  52. calcanius
    heel bone
  53. metatarsal
    five bones of the midfoot
  54. talus
    the first tarsal bone
  55. hallux
    big toe
  56. symphysis joint
    slightly movable joint with a fibrocartilage pad or disk between the bones
  57. synovial joint
    a fully movable joint:  Hinge joint (elbow and knee) and ball-and-socket joints (shoulder and joint)
  58. articular cartilage
    covers the end of bones.
  59. ligaments
    strong fibrous bands of connective tissue that hold the two bones together in a synovial joint
  60. joint capsule
    has a fibrous outer layer and an inner membrane
  61. synovial membrane
    produces synovial fluid
  62. synovial fluid
    a clear, thick fluid that lubricates the joint
  63. meniscus
    a special crescent-shaped cartilage pad found in some synovial joints, such as the knee
  64. osseous tissue
    a type of connective tissue
  65. periosteum
    a thick, fibrous membrane that covers the surface of a bone
  66. diaphysis
    the long, narrow shaft of the bone
  67. epiphysis
    the two widened ends of the long bone
  68. epiphysial plates
    where bone growth occurs
  69. medullary cavity
    filled with yellow bone marrow that contains fatty tissue
  70. cortical bone
    dense conpact bone for weight bearing
  71. cancellous bone
    spongy bone in each epiphysis that is less dense than compact bone adn the spaces in it are filled with red bone marrow.
  72. ossification
    the gradual replacing of cartilage with bone that takes place during childhood and adolescence
  73. osteoclasts
    break down areas of old or damaged bone
  74. osteoblasts
    deposit new bone tissue in those areas
  75. osteocytes
    maintain and monitor the mineral content of the bone