Intro to Soc Final Exam Vocab

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julianne.elizabeth
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224521
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Intro to Soc Final Exam Vocab
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2013-06-20 22:18:46
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LCCC Sociology
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For Prof. Anderson's final intro to soc
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  1. Agents of Socialization
    • (chap 6)
    • people and groups who teach us about our culture
  2. Anticipatory Socialization
    • (chap 6)
    • the process by which individuals practice for future social role by adopting the norms or behaviors associated with a position they have not yet achieved
  3. Biological Determinism
    • (chap 6)
    • a theory that contends that biology, specifically our genetic makeup, almost completely shapes human behavior
  4. Generalized Other
    • (chap 6)
    • the values and orientation of one's overall community rather than those of specific individuals
  5. Looking Glass Self
    • (chap 6)
    • the idea that our sense of self develops as a reflection of the way we think others see us
  6. Resocialization
    • (chap 6)
    • the process by which individuals replace old norms and behaviors with new ones as they move from one role or life stage to another
  7. Rites of Passage
    • (chap 6)
    • the activities that mark and celebrate a change in a person's social atatus
  8. Sense of Self
    • (chap 6)
    • the collection of thoughts and feelings you have when considering yourself as an object
  9. Social Determinism
    • (chap 6)
    • a theory that contends that culture and the social environment almost completely shape human behavior
  10. Socialization
    • (chap 6)
    • the process through which people learn their culture's basic norms, values, beliefs, and behaviors
  11. Bureaucracy
    • (chap 7)
    • a hierarchical administrative system with formal rules and procedures used to manage organizations
  12. Dramaturgy
    • (chap 7)
    • an approach to the study of social interaction that uses the metaphor of a social life as a theatre
  13. Groupthink
    • (chap 7)
    • a form of uncritical thinking in which people reinforce a consensus rather than ask serious questions or thoroughly analyze the issue at hand
  14. Master Status
    • (chap 7)
    • a social position that is overwhelmingly significant, powerfully influences a person's social experience, and typically overshadows all the other social positions that a person may occupy
  15. Reference Group
    • (chap 7)
    • the groups against which we choose to measure ourselves
  16. Role Conflict
    • (chap 7)
    • the problem that occurs when the expectations associated with different roles clash
  17. Role Strain
    • (Chapter 7)
    • the problem that occurs when the expectations associated with a single role compete against each other
  18. Scientific Management
    • (chapter 7)
    • the process of deskilling ordinary workers and increasing workplace efficiency through calculated study
  19. Thomas Theorem
    • (chapter 7)
    • the idea that if people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences
  20. Stereotypes
    • (chap 7)
    • exaggerated, distorted, or untrue generalizations about categories of people that do not acknowledge individual variation
  21. Absolute Poverty vs. Relative Poverty
    • (chap 9)
    • absolute poverty: a scarcity of resources so severe that it is life-threatening

    relative poverty: situations that exists when people do not have the basic resources to maintain a standard of living considered acceptable in their society
  22. Class mobility
    • (chap 9)
    • the ability to move from one social class to another
  23. Colonialism vs. Neocolonialism
    • (chap 9)
    • Colonialism: the use of military, political, and economic power by one society to dominate the people of another society, usually for economic benefit

    neocolonialism: a system of economic domination of poorer nations by wealthier ones without the use of formal political control or military occupation
  24. Cultural Capital
    • (chap 9)
    • various types of knowledge, skills, and other cultural resources
  25. Equal opportunity
    • (chap 9)
    • the idea that all people should have the same chance to achieve success
  26. Feminization poverty
    • (chap 9)
    • ¬†a trend in which women made up an increasingly large share of the poor
  27. Global Inequality
    • (chap 9)
    • the differences in wealth and power among the countries of the world
  28. Meritocracy
    • (chap 9)
    • the notion that people are rewarded and are able to advance because of their abilities
  29. Capitalist Class, Middle Class, Working Class, Underclass
    • (chap 9)
    • Capitalist Class (bourgeoisie): those who control major capital and own the means of production

    Middle Class: a group that is distinctive for its contribution of specialized knowledge and expertise to the economy

    Working Class (proletariat): those who survive on the wages they earn

    Underclass:  chronically unemployed people who have no ongoing relationship to the mainstream economy
  30. Amalgamation
    • (chap 10)
    • the process by which a majority and a minority group blend to mix to form a new group
  31. Assimilation
    • (chap 10)
    • the process by which members of a minority group come to adopt the culture of the majority group
  32. Ethnicity
    • (chap 10)
    • shared cultural heritage often deriving from a common ancestry and homeland
  33. Pluralism
    • (Chap 10)
    • a situation in which distinct ethnic and racial groups coexist on equal terms and have equal social standings
  34. Prejudice
    • (chap 10)
    • to "prejudge" someone or some group negatively based on inadequate information
  35. Racism
    • (chap 10)
    • the belief that one race is inherently superior to another
  36. Stereotypes
    • (Chap 10)
    • exaggerated, distorted, or untrue generalizations about categories of people that do not acknowledge individual variation
  37. Race
    • (chap 10)
    • a category of people widely perceived as sharing socially significant physical characteristics such as skin color
  38. Racial Essentialism
    • (chap 10)
    • the idea that supposedly natural and immutable differences separate race
  39. Racialization of the State
    • (chap 10)
    • the implementation of government and private-sector policies that discriminated against minorities and provided Whites with numerous advantages
  40. Segregation
    • (chap 10)
    • keeping distinct social groups physically and socially separate and unequal
  41. Split Labor Market Theory
    • (chap 10)
    • the theory that ethnic and racial conflicts often emerge when two racial or ethnic groups compete for the same jobs
  42. Transnational Migrants
    • (chap 10)
    • immigrants who retains strong personal, cultural, and economic ties to both their country of birth and their newly adopted home
  43. Peggy McIntosh "invisible knapsack"
    (chap 10)
  44. Allport's Contact Hypothesis
    (chap 10)
  45. Asexual
    • (chap 11)
    • People who experience no sexual attraction for anyone
  46. Bisexual
    • (chap 11)
    • people who are attracted to others of both sexes
  47. Doing Gender
    • (Chap 11)
    • creating gender through interactions in particular social settings
  48. Feminism
    • (chap 11)
    • a philosophy that advocates social, political, and economic equality for women and men
  49. Gender Expression
    • (chap 11)
    • the way a person communicates gender identity to others, through behavior, clothing, hairstyle and other means
  50. Gender Identity
    • (Chap 11)
    • a person's identification as a woman, a man, or some combination of the two
  51. Gender Role
    • (Chap 11)
    • a set of social expectations regarding behavior and attitudes based on a person's sex
  52. Intersexual people
    • (chap 11)
    • individuals born with ambiguous reproductive or sexual anatomy
  53. Sex
    • (chap 11)
    • the biological distinction between females and males
  54. Sexism
    • (chap 11)
    • the ideology that one sex is superior to the other
  55. Sexual Harassment
    • (chap 11)
    • unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical harassment of sexual nature
  56. Sexual Convergence
    (chap 11)
  57. Transgender People
    • (chap 11)
    • individuals who identify with a gender different from the one associated with their sex
  58. Transsexuals
    • (chap 11)
    • people who have sex reassignment surgery to change their physical appearance

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