The Nervous System

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The Nervous System
2010-06-07 15:04:15
nervous system brain

Terminology for chapter 20
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  1. Neuron
    Nerve cell. Basic unit of the nervous system
  2. Neuroglia
    Supportive tissue of the nervous system
  3. Cell Body
    Large part of cell made up of cytoplasm and the nucleus
  4. Nucleus
    Central controlling unit within a living cell
  5. Dendrites
    Short receptive fibers that branch out from a cell's body
  6. Axon
    A long dtraight fiber with a brush like tip that conducts impulses away from the cell body
  7. Myelin
    White fatty material that forms a sheath around most axons
  8. Sensory/Afferent Neurons
    Neurons that carry signals to the brain and spinal cord
  9. Motor/Efferent Neurons
    Neurons that stimulate the contraction or relaxation of muscles and spur the activities of glands
  10. interneurons
    neurons that shuttle messages back and forth through pathways
  11. synapse
    junction between neurons
  12. central nervous system
    brain and spinal cord
  13. peripheral nervous system
    cranial and spinal nerves
  14. autonomic nervous system
    system concerned with activities conducted automatically by certain peripheral nerves
  15. meninges
    membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
  16. dura mater
    outer membrane of meninges
  17. arachnoid membrane
    webline membrane between the dura mater and the pia mater of the meninges
  18. pia mater
    inner membrane of meninges
  19. cerebrum
    largest part of the brain
  20. cerebral cortes
    outer surface of the cerebrum that is responsible for the generation of impulses
  21. gyri convultions
    folds of cortex forming elevated portions
  22. sulci/fissures
    depressions or grooves thtat seperate convulutions
  23. frontal lobe
    also known as somatic motor area. anterior lobe of the brain that controls voluntary muscles. Left side governs the right side orf the body and the muscles involved in speech. The right side governs the left side of the body, personality and planning and judgment.
  24. cerebrospinal fluid
    watery substance in the ventricals or the brain that cushions and protects the brain and flows throughout the brain and around the spinal cord
  25. neuro
    nerve, nervous system
  26. cephalo
  27. cerebello
  28. cerebro
  29. cornu
  30. cranio
    head, skull
  31. duro
    dura mater
  32. encephalo
  33. meningo
  34. ponto
  35. thalamo
  36. ganglio
  37. myelo
    marrow, spinal cord
  38. spondylo
  39. afferent
    to be carried from one place in the body to a central part of the body
  40. parietal lobe
    lobe of the brain that contains the sensory areas and determines distance, size, shape, taste and the sensory aspects of speech. Also known as the somatic sensory area
  41. temporal lobe
    lobe of the brain that contains the auditory center for hearing impulses and determines the sense of smell, memory, and learning
  42. occipital lobe
    posterior lobe of the brain that governs vision
  43. lateral ventricle
    cavity of the brain extending from the frontal portion of the cerebral hemisphere to the posterior lobe. It has a horn like projection. There are 2; one in each hemisphere.
  44. cornu
    Horn like projection of the lateral ventricle reaching into the frontal, occipetal, and temporal lobes
  45. 3rd ventricle
    The smallest. Communicates with the lateral ventricals
  46. 4th ventricle
    Communicates with the central canal of the spinal cord and sub arachnoid space.
  47. Midbrain
    Located at the upper part of the brainstem, above the pons. connects the lower brain centers to the highter centers. contains optix reflex centers and serves to correlate optic and touch impulses
  48. pons
    Or bridge. Located betweeen the midbrain and the medulla oblangata. Contains the nerve tracks fromt he right and left halves of the cerebellum
  49. medulla oblangata
    one part of the brainstem that regulates heart action, breathing and circulation. 8 pairs of cranial nerves.
  50. cerebellum
    second largest division of the brain; "little brain"
  51. vermis
    central portion of the cerebellum
  52. diencephalon
    section of the brain between the midbrain and the cerebrum
  53. thalamus
    part of the diencephalon where nerve fibers from the spinal cord and lower part of the brain synapse with neurons leading to the cerebrum
  54. hypothalamus
    part of the diencephalon that contains centers for the control of body temperature, corbohydrate metabolism, and emotions that affect heartbeat, blood pressure, appetite, and sexual reflexes
  55. epithalamus
    part of the diencephalon that contains the pineal body
  56. 2 functions of the spinal cord:
    reflex activities: involves the translation of a sensory message entering the cord into a motor message as it leaves

    pathway: the spinal cord seves as a pathway for conducting sensory and motor impulses
  57. the four sections of the spinal cord are:
    cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral
  58. sensory & motor fibers
    part of the composition of spinal nerves of both the autonomic and voluntay nervous systems
  59. dorsal & ventral roots
    divisions of the spinal nerve that enter the spinal cord at different points
  60. ganglion
    cluster of nerve cell bodies
  61. plexus
    interlocking network or nerves
  62. olfactory
    smell impulses to the brain
  63. optic
  64. oculomotor
    eye muscles and the pupil
  65. trochlear
    one eyeball muscle on each side
  66. trigeminal
    sensory nerve of the face and head
  67. abducens
    eyeball muscle
  68. facial
    largely motor to the face
  69. acoustic
    balance and hearing
  70. glossopharyngeal
    taste, saliva secretion, swallowing
  71. vagus
    most organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavities
  72. accessory
    two muscles of the neck
  73. hypoglossal`
    muscles of the tongue