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what is population?
collection of all outcomes, responses, counts, and measurements that are of interest

what is a sample?
a subset, part of a population

what is parameter?
number description for population

what is statistic? (not statisticS)
a number description for a sample

Describe Descriptive Statistics
branch of statisticS that has organization, summary, and display of data
no conclusions are drawn

Describe inferential statistics
part of statisticS that has conclusions drawn based on a given data

give an example of parameter
In a survey of 2000 people

give an example of statistic
in a survey 20 out of 2000 people

give an example of descriptive statistics
for unmarried men, 70% were alive at age 65

give an example of inferential statistics
for married men 90% were alive at 65
....being married prolongs your life

what is qualitative data?
attributes, labels, or nonnumbered entries

what is quantitative data?
consists of numerical measurement or counts

Is nominal level of measurement the lowest?
yes

describe nominal level of measurement
 qualitative
 category of names, labels, qualities
 no math can be used

at what number level is the ordinal level of measurement?
2..after nominal

describe ordinal level of measurement
 qualitative or quantitative
 data can be arranged in order but it does not matter

what level is the interval level of measurement?
3...after nominal and ordinal

what is the acronym for the level of measurement?
 Nominal
 Ordinal
 Interval
 Ratio

describe interval level of measurement
 entries can be ordered
 meaningful differences for data entries can use math
 *zero means a position on a scale*
 zero is not an inherent zero meaning doesn't mean NONE

what level is the ration level of measurement?
4

describe ratio level of measurement
 similar to interval level
 can use math
 zero means NONE..."inherent zero"
 a ratio from data can be made so it can be a expressed as a *multiple* of another

describe what a frequency histogram is
 a BAR graph that represents the FREQUENCY distribution of a data set:
 xaxis is quantitative and measures the data values
 yaxis measures the FREQUENCYÂ
 BARS MUST TOUCH

describe what a frequency polygon graph is
a LINE graph that explains the continuous change in frequencies for FREQUENCY HISTOGRAM

Describe 6 methods of data collection
 1. identify variables
 2. make a detailed plan for collecting data
 3. collect data
 4. describe data using stats. techniques
 5. interpret data
 6. identify errors

what is observational study?
researcher observes and measures characteristics of interest

what is experiment?
a treatment is applied to part of a population and responses are observed

what is simulation?
 use math or physical model to make the conditions of a simulation or process
 INVOLVES COMPUTERS

What is Survey?
 an investigation of one or more characteristics of a population
 mostly done by interviews and mail or phone

Describe elements of experimental design: Control
for effects other than one being observed

what is confounding variables?
when an experimenter can't tell the difference between the effects or different factors on a variable

what is placebo effect?
when a subject reacts positively to a treatment when there's actually no medical treatment..."all in the head"

what is blinding?
subject doesn't know if he/she receives a treatment or placebo

what is doubleblinding?
 when the experimenter or subject knows if the subject is receiving a treatment or a placebo..
 usually has a thirdparty involve

what is Randomization?
randomly assigning subjects to different treatment groups

what is completely randomized design?
subjects are assigned to different treatment groups through random selection

what i randomized block design?
 divide subjects with similar characteristics into blocks
 in each block, randomly assign subject into treatment groups

what is matched pairs design?
 subjects are paired according to similarity. One subject in the pair is randomly picked to receive one treatment while the other receives a different treatment
 *like twins experiment*

what is replication?
*repetition* of experiment using a large group of subjects

What is Simple Random Sample?
every possible sample of same size has same chance of being picked

what is stratefied sample?
divide population into groups and pick randomly from each group

give an example of stratefied sample
 divide by social economic level and pick households from each level
 LIKE BLOCK DESIGN EXPERIMENT

Describe Cluster Sample and give example
divide population in groups and pick all members in/or more, but not all of the clusters
example: everyone in class MTH 222 takes survey

What is systematic Sample? and give example?
choose a starting value at random the choose kth member of population
example: line up everyone and then pick every 3rd person

what is convenience?
most common by just asking...maybe for fun

what is frequency distribution?
a table shows classes or intervals of data with a count of number of entries in each class

what is range?
the difference between maximum and minimum number

what is class width?
distance from lower or upper limits of consecutive classes

what is a dot plot graph?
plotting dots into graph horizontally

what is a pie chart?
circle graph that depicts angles and percentages

what is a pareto chart graph?
separated bar graph that has the highest category to the left and NOT CONTINOUS

what is a scatter plot?
random scattering of points

what is a time series chart?
 quantitative entries for a specific amount of time
 same as line graph and scatter plot
 *xaxis is a time unit*

what is probability experiment?
action, trial, which specific results are obtained(counts, measurements, or responses)

what is an outcome?
result of a SINGLE trial

what is a sample?
 a set of all possible outcomes
 outcome is a subset of sample

what is an event?
 having one or more outcomes
 also a subset of sample

what is simple event?
consists of a SINGLE outcome event

