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The ability to resist abrasions, penetration, and distortion.
Allows very little bending or shaping without shattering.
Ability To be hammered,molded or shaped without cracking.
Ability to be bent permanently or twisted into various shapes without breaking.
Ability to return to its original shape after being deformed
Ability to withstand tearing or shearing without breaking
Actual weight of a material per cubic inch
Ability to become liquid when heated.
Ability to carry heat or electricity.
Ability to shrink
Ability to grow larger
Resist being pulled apart
resist a crushing force
resist being cut by scissor like action
resist a twisting force.
group of metals having iron as their principle element
Two types of Ferrous Metals Are?
Carbon Steel And Steel Alloy
Non Ferrous Metals Are?
All metals that have elements other than iron as their principle element.
(1XXX) Designation is For?
(2XXX-8XXX) Is The Designator For?
Letter and numbers following the alloy designation which show the hardness of the metal.
Measured In thousandths of an inch And printed as a decimal
Thin Layer of pure aluminum that protects the base metal from Corrosion
The two types of breaks Are?
Short and Long Breaks
The two Types Of Drawings Are?
- Isometric-Give Three Dimensional or pictorial view of an object.
- Orthographic- Show the exact shape of an object through the use of different views.
Basic Views Include?
- Front-Always drawn first
- Right-Located at right side of front
- Left-Located left side of front
- Rear-May be shown to the outside of the bottom,top,or either side view.
- Top-Directly above front view
- Bottom-Directly Below the front view
Show the true shape and length of an inclined surface or other special features.
Clarify internal or hidden features
Show the alternate position of a part or the position of a missing part
Used to show relative location of parts
Used when Alignment check on an aircraft is performed
Normally Orthographic views of fuselage,wing, or empennage showing location of all structural componets.
Show relation of parts within a system, how they are connected and the arrangement of the componets.
Drawing of an object that has been rolled, folded, or a combination of both, and then spread out on a plan or flat surface.
Flat pattern Diagram
Located at intersection of extension lines outside the formed part.
Imaginary line that runs between mold points
Indicates the beginning and end of a bend.
Distance From the bend tangent line to the mold point.
Amount of metal used to make a bend or the distance between the bend tangent lines.
Indicate exact amount of metal acquired to make part and is always drawn with a scribe.
Sharp steel pick used like a pencil for marking cut lines only.
Consist of steel rule with an accurately machined head.
Can measure and degree head
Lay out arcs or circles on metal transfer measurements divide lines into equal parts.
The spacing on a ruler is
8ths, 16th, 32nd and 64th
Used to cut up to 1/16 of an inch.
Are used to cut straight lines.
Have small serrations on the cutting edge to prevent slipping. Used for cutting spiral cuts or circles.
Max material thickness is 0.050 inch aluminum
Type of snips and how they cut?
- Green- Cuts Right
- Red- Cuts Left
- Yellow- Cuts Middle
Adjustable Frame that can be changed to hold blades from 8 to 16 inches long.
Identified by number of teeth per inch.
Made for cutting heavy metal to heavy for snips.
Tool Hardened steel with cutting edges used for smoothing materials. Used to cut away material by removing small amounts of metal at a controlled speed.
Shapes Of Files Are And What They Are Used For.
- Flat- Flat surfaces and outside arcs
- Triangular- Internal Angles and Corners
- Square- Finishing Bottom Of Slots
- Round-(Rat Tail)- Enlarging round holes and small arcs.
- Half Round- Large Inside Arcs
The two types of Cuts Are?
- Single File- One row of chisel-shaped teeth set at an angle to the center line of the file
- Double Cuts- Has A Second row of teeth set at an angle to the first row
What is the order of Coarseness of Files
- Dead Smooth
Depends on the shape and hardness of material to be filed and on the finish desired
2 Type of Pneumatic Saws are?
- Saber Saw- Light duty machine used for slow cutting or irregular cutting.
- Skin Saw- Miniature handheld saw with a rotary disc blade that is adjustable
Removes Damaged portion of an aircraft
Allows cutting of aircraft skin that is attached to underlying structures without damaging the structures because of adjustable blade.
Used to cut radii in corners and uniform hole patters.. (Composed of two turrets supported by a frame)
Cutting Holes In The Center of large sheets of metal or fixed parts
The frame of the shear never obstructs the cutting operation. This allows sheets of any length to be cut.
Floor or bench mounted manually or power operated with beds ranging from 2ft. and up.
Used for cutting heavy gage metal used for squaring, multiple cutting tool
Use This when Deburring Metal?
Oversized Twist Drill
Giving desired shape to a piece of sheet metal
Forming Aircraft Structures
Heavy Metal Forms, Available in various shapes, such as curves and angles
Anchored into a workbench, contains a variety of holes for different stakes.
Bends the metal from outside to the middle
Using glancing blows with a shrinking mallet to form convex bends.
Designed to make straight line bends in a variety of sizes.
Most common breaks are?
3 to 12 feet long
5 parts to a break are
- Bedding Leaf
- Balance Weights
- Clamping Bar
- Clamping Bar Handles.
Almost simiilar to a cornice brake but the clamping bar is divided into sections that vary in width and are interchangable.
Box and Pan Brakes
Available in various sizes and capacities. Some are hand operated, others are power operated.
Forming Sheet metal into curves and cylinders for various diameters.
Slim Roll Former
Bench mounted machine with two removable rollers that enable the mechanic to burr, turn,wire,bead and crimp sheet metal
The 5 types of Rolls Are?
- Bending Rolls
- Turning rolls
- Wiring rolls
- Crimping Rolls
- Burring Rolls
Floor Mounted press with a stationary lower base plate and a movable upper ram. Multipurpose machine. Pressing bearing races,bushings, and flanging dies into place when heavy gage metal is used.
Bench mounted press, manually operated having a stationary base plate with a movable upper ram.
Allows proper shape of metal to form when dies are pressed together. Used to form a bend or flange in the center of a sheet of metal without distortion such as lightning holes or beads in the center of a rib or bulkhead.
Hole in the center of various internal structures that has a flange made around the edge of it to add rigidity to the area. Reduces weight to structural members
Three ways to identify twist drill bits are by?
- Inches- 1/16-4 inches or larger
- Letter- A to Z A is Smallest Z Largest
- Numbers- 80 to No. 1 80 being smallest 1 largest.
(Hurdy Gurdy) portable drill used for drilling 1/4 inch holes or smaller when no power is available.
Various speed and portable drill, requiring compressed air for operation. Comes in various shapes such as a inline 90 and pisitol.
Electrically Operated power machine. Two basic types: Bench mounted and Floor Mounted. Used on heavy duty and sensitive drilling.
Used to temporarily secure parts in position for drilling. Come in sizes ranging from 1/16 to 3/8 of an inch.
What are the identifiers for cleco fasteners. Color and size?
Distance from the center of the rivet to the nearest edge of the metal
Minimum edge distance is 2 1/2 times the distance of the rivet the max is 4 times the distance
Minimum edge distance is 2 times the diameter of the rivet from the edge of the metal max is 4 times the Diameter.
When rivets are placed to close sheet metal will crack or pull away from the rivet if to far away the sheet metal will turn up.
Improper Edge Distance
Distance between rivets in the same row, and this distance is measured from a rivet center to the next rivet center.
Rivet Spacing is?
Minimum diameter is 3 times diameter and max is 8 times diameter
Used when two or more rivets are required. Rivets are staggered to obtain max strength. Using 75% of existing Rivet pitch.
set the head of a screw or a rivet flush with the material in which it is being placed. Used on material.
What are the two type of Machine Countersunk styles and what are their definition?
- Non-Adjustable- Most commonly used using two or more cutting lips.
- Adjustable- Better to use Produces more uniform cone shaped recess.
Make recess shape to accommodate a flush head fastener without removing the metal. (Stronger Joint than the machine head)
Dimpling soft alloys and metal of 0.063 of an inch thickness or thinner.
Similar to press dimpling except that female die of the dimple is equipped with a spring loaded ram.
Male and female die, which is manufactured to the shape and size of the flush fastener being installed.
Used when one metal sheet is to thick to be dimpled and the second sheet is to thin to machine contersink
Two parts To Hi-Shear Rivet Are?
And what is Hi-Shear rivets used for
- Cadmium plated steel alloy stud
- Anodized aluminum collar
- Used for high shear strength applications.
What are the head styles of Hi-Shear Rivets and what are they measured in?
- Countersunk Head
- Diameter in 1/32 of an inch
- Length in 1/16 of an inch
High strength, blind structural fastener that consist of three parts.
What are the 3 parts of a Jo-Bolt?
- Alloy Steel nut
- Threaded steel bolt
- Corrosion-resistant steel sleeve
The three head styles for a Jo-Bolt are and the sizes are?
- Hex Millable
- Length- 1/16
- Diameter 1/16
Threaded Fastener that combine the best characteristics of a rivet and a bolt.
What are the head styles of Hi-Lok fasteners and what are the sizes?
- Diameter: 1/32
- Length 1/16
The two parts to hi-lok fasteners are?
- Stud-Made from cadmium-plated steel alloy
Dimple Head marking most common
Raised cross head marking, magnesium only
1XThickness of Sheet=
The 5 types of Pneumatic rivet guns are?
- Fast hitting
- Slow Hitting
- Corning Riviter
- One Shot
- Squeeze rivet
Shape the bucktail of a solid shank rivet.
Used on components in place of solid shanks rivets when a bucking bar cannot be positioned properly
Two types of Blind Rivets Are?
- Mechanical Lock- Used on components in place of solid shank rivets.
- Three Parts: Shank,Lock, Stem
- Friction Lock- Almost the same as mechanical lock but stem is held in place by friction.
Two types of Rivet guns are
Main structure unit of fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft. Houses the crew, passengers and cargo
Light Metal that is often circular or oval shaped
Internal Assemblies that are located where concentrated loads and external parts are attached.
Stronger Heavier than vertical rings giving shape.
Vertical members used to close on area from another.
Principle longitudinal members used to fill in between longerous to give added strength.
Short Light structural members used to fill in between longerons to give added strength
To classes of Designs for aircraft structures are? And Give a Description
- Monocoque- design relies largely on the strength of the skin or covering to cary the various loads.
- Semimonocoque- Overcomes strength to weight problem of monocoque has skin reinforced by a complete frame of structural members.
Two types of Airfoils Are?
3 parts to Cantilever wings are?
The 6 parts to Rotary wings are?
- Roof end
- Blade Cuff
- Abrasion Strip
- Trailing end
- Blade Spar
- Leading Edge
- Tip End
Type of Fixed wing Tail Group
4 parts of an Empenage is
- Vertical Stabilizer
- Horizontal Stabilizer
Controls rolling,motion of the aircraft alongthe longitudinal axis
Controls the pitching motion of the aircraft on the lateral axis
Controls the yawing motion of the aircraft along the vertical axis
Produced anti-torque forces which may be varied by the pilot to control flight heading thus providing direction control (YAW)
Indicate Vertical planes parallel to the plane of symmetry. PLane of symmetry is vertical plane through the longitudinal centerline of the aircraft
Indicate horizontal planes parallel to the ground.
3 Shapes to a flush patch are
Manual for Repairs
General Manual For Structural Repairs