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- distal femur
- proximal tibia - major weight-bearing bone of leg.
- patella - sesamoid bone, protects ant knee
- cruciate - cross within joint cavity btwn femur and tibia, maintain ant/post and rotational stability at knee
- collateral - connect femur with leg bones, medial collateral with tibia and lat collateral with fibula. stabilize knee
- tibiofemoral - primary joint, hinge joint, allows flexion/extension
- patellofemoral - arthroidal joint formed by posterior aspect of patellanad PF groove btwn condyles of femur.
angle formed from line connecting ASIS to center of patella and line connecting center of patella to tibial tuberosity. Determines line of pull of patella at PF joint. Normal is 18 degrees in females and 13 in males. Below normal is bowlegged (genu varum), above normal is knock kneed (genus valgum)
- tibiofemoral joint - flexion/extension in sagittal plane
- flexed TF joint - internal and external rotation in transverse plane.
knee muscles anterior
quadriceps (rectus femoris, vastus laterlias, vastus intermedius, and vastus medialis) - 2-joint muscles, extend the knee
knee muscles posterior
- hamstrings (biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus)
- popliteus - unlocks extended knee
- grastrocnemius - 2joint, 2head muscle, flexes kness and plantar flexes ankle
- ligament sprains and tears
- menisci injuries, tears, strains
- PF pain syndrome produces ant knee pain
- Pain from abnormal Q angles