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Leading cause of birth defects and mental retardation
Fetal alcohol syndrome - retardation, microcephaly, holoprosencephaly, facial abnormalities, limb dislocation, heart and lung fistulas
absence of digits, multiple anomalies
CN VIII toxicity - deaf!!
abnormal fetal development and fetal addiction; placental abruption (placenta separates from uterus before baby is born)
vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma
Neural tube defects
Iodine (lack or excess)
congenital goiter or hypothyroidism
Ebstein's anomaly (atrialized right ventricle - tricuspid leaflet is crazy low)
- Caudal regression syndrome
- - messed up lower part of spine.
- - can range from anal atresia to sirenomelia ("Mermaid syndrome")
Smoking (nicotine, CO)
preterm labor, placental problems, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), ADHD
Limb defects ("flipper" limbs)
Inhibition of intestinal folate absorption --> neural tube defects
Vitamin A (excess)
Extremely high risk for spontaneous abortions and birth defects (cleft palate, cardiac abnormalities)
Bone deformaties, fetal hemorrhage, abortion
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