Embryology Teratogens

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  1. ACE inhibitors
    renal damage
  2. Alcohol
    Leading cause of birth defects and mental retardation

    Fetal alcohol syndrome - retardation, microcephaly, holoprosencephaly, facial abnormalities, limb dislocation, heart and lung fistulas
  3. Alkylating agents
    absence of digits, multiple anomalies
  4. Aminoglycosides
    CN VIII toxicity - deaf!!
  5. Cocaine
    abnormal fetal development and fetal addiction; placental abruption (placenta separates from uterus before baby is born)
  6. Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
    vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma
  7. Folate antagonists
    Neural tube defects
  8. Iodine (lack or excess)
    congenital goiter or hypothyroidism
  9. Lithium
    Ebstein's anomaly (atrialized right ventricle - tricuspid leaflet is crazy low)
  10. Maternal diabetes
    • Caudal regression syndrome
    • - messed up lower part of spine.
    • - can range from anal atresia to sirenomelia ("Mermaid syndrome")
  11. Smoking (nicotine, CO)
    preterm labor, placental problems, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), ADHD
  12. Tetracyclines
    Discolored teeth
  13. Thalidomide
    Limb defects ("flipper" limbs)
  14. Valproate
    Inhibition of intestinal folate absorption --> neural tube defects
  15. Vitamin A (excess)
    Extremely high risk for spontaneous abortions and birth defects (cleft palate, cardiac abnormalities)
  16. Warfarin
    Bone deformaties, fetal hemorrhage, abortion
  17. X-rays, anticonvulsants
    Multiple anomalies
Card Set:
Embryology Teratogens
2013-06-23 03:20:15
teratogens USMLE first aid embryology

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