Humanistic theory - personality
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What is Psychology (2)
- Study of how/why people differ
- socially/culturally constructed concept
Humanistic theory development (5)
- emerged in 60s
- in reaction to pessamistic approaches to psychology
- has optimistic outlook on human nature and personal development
- doesn't see conflict as inevitable
- behaviour influenced by our perceptions
Carl Rogers' theory details (5)
- 'client centred therapy'
- warm supportive approach focused on feelings
- client does own growing
- unconditional positive regard
- client has answers and directions - therapist need to help them find it
Process of psychological growth is called
Carl Rogers Key concepts:
- Unconditional positive regard`
- Non-judgmental attitude
CR - Why need unconditional positive regard? (3)
what does involve therapist doing?
- client won't disclose everything
- client might feel unworthy
- client may hold onto negative aspects of themselves
Therapist must believe that people are basically good and demonstrate this to client
CR - Why must therapist have non-judgmental attitude?
Rogers believed people are competent in seeing their mistakes and knowing change is needed even if don't initially admit it
CR - therapist for disclosure
Therapist must disclose too, research shows we share as much as the other does
CR - What therapist does for refletion
- People say their beliefs are more real when they are repeated back to them by someone else.
- Therapist must reflect clients beliefs, not interpret them
Basic ideas behind humanistic Psychology (4)
- the present is the most important aspect of the person, therefore humanists focus on now, not past or future
- H theory is reality based and to be psychologically healthy, people must take responsibility for themselves, whether person's actions are positive or negative
- The individual by being human posses inherent worth. If actions are negative, doesn't make person negative.
- The goal of life should always be personal growth and understanding. Only through self-improvement and self-knowledge can one be truly happy.
Abraham Masolw's theory
-name of process
- hierarchy of needs
- without meeting initial needs of triangle, not able to continue our life and move up
First level (bottom)
- Physiological needs eg food, water, sleep, oxygen
- Safety and security
- seek safety through others and strive to find a world that will protect us and keep us from harm
- Belonging and love needs
- focuses on desire to be accepted and fit in and to feel like we have a place in the world
- Esteem needs
- focus energy on self respect, respect from others and feel we have made accomplishments, strive to move up in careers, gain knowledge about world
Need for self-actualisation
- very few people reach this stage
- refers to complete understanding of self
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Deficiency (4) botton to top
- Belonging and love
- self actualisation
Features of Humanistic theories
- motivation for behaviour is unique to person's tendencies (innate and learnt) to develop and change in positive directions towards self-actualisation
- drive for self-actualisation conflicts with need for approval
- All theories move towards self-actualisation
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