Week 8

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  1. According to the laws of physics, energy can be converted but it cannot be _____ or _____.
    • created
    • destroyed
  2. After energy is converted into electricity and transported to the consumer, what two utilizable forms can the energy be converted to?
    • Heat
    • Motion
  3. In what devices is energy in motion most often seen?
    Electric motors
  4. What does the law of charges state?
    Opposite charges attract, like charges repel.
  5. In AC circuits, what do the terms positive and negative refer to?
    The direction of current flow in a conductor.
  6. When the positive pole of a magnet passes a conductor, what will happen?
    The electrons will come rushing back creating a negative charge of current flow.
  7. When the negative pole of a magnet passes a conductor, what will happen?
    The electrons will move away from the magnet creating a positive charge of current flow.
  8. The direction the electrons are flowing in a conductor, in the positive or negative direction, is referred to as the ______.
  9. The strength of the voltage depends on what three factors?
    • The number of turns in the coil of wire.
    • The strength of the magnetic field.
    • The speed at which the magnetic lines of flux pass through the coil.
  10. In order for a generator to produce one volt, a single conductor must pass through _____ lines of flux in one second.
  11. A graphical representation of what is happening to voltage in an AC circuit over a period of time.
    Sine wave
  12. At what angle of the generator's rotation would the voltage be at it's peak positive value?
    90 degrees
  13. At what angles of the generator's rotation would the voltage be at zero?
    • 180 degrees
    • 360 degrees
  14. At what angle of the generator's rotation would the voltage be at it's peak negative value?
    270 degrees
  15. One complete rotation of the generator is also known as a ______.
  16. The number of times that a generator rotates in one second is known as the ________.
  17. The unit of measure for frequency.
  18. The frequency of power in the US and Canada.
    60 Hz
  19. How is hertz abbreviated?
  20. In a sine wave, the voltage at any point along the waveform is equal to the maximum voltage times the sine of ______________.
    the angle of rotation
  21. A value of AC voltage that will produce the same amount of power as a like value of DC voltage
    RMS or Effective value
  22. What does RMS stand for?
    Root mean square
  23. What is the equation for finding the RMS value of a sine wave.
    RMS = 0.707 X Peak
  24. What is the equation for finding the peak value of a sine wave given the RMS value?
    Peak = 1.414 X RMS
  25. How many times does the voltage fall to zero in one cycle?
    3 times
  26. What are two other names for root mean square?
    • Effective value
    • DC equivalent
  27. The RMS is always lower than what?
    Peak or maximum value.
  28. What are the three key elements of a basic electrical circuit?
    • A source of electrical pressure, or voltage
    • A conductor
    • A load
  29. A circuit lacking a complete path in which electrons are unable to flow through a conductor and provide power.
    Open circuit
  30. A device that uses the electrical energy from a source to accomplish some useful purpose.
  31. A circuit that does not have a load or in which the load has been bypassed.
    Short circuit
  32. An intentionally weakened point in a circuit that burns open when current flow is excessive.
  33. A device that is connected in series with a load so the circuit will open if the current rating is exceeded.
  34. What are the two basic types of circuits?
    • Series
    • Parallel
  35. Can a circuit be a combination of series circuits and parallel circuits?
  36. A circuit that only has one path for current to flow.
  37. A circuit that has multiple paths for current to flow.
  38. What circuit type are all power lines?
  39. What is a combination circuit?
    A circuit that consists of both series and parallel parts.
  40. Of the two key elements of the electric systems, which one generally directly affects customers if it is taken out of service?
  41. What do customers generally consider a clear indication of the quality of service of a utility?
  42. What happens when a transmission line is taken out of service?
    Rerouted power flow tends to raise the loading on other interconnected lines.
  43. What must happen if a transmission line is going to be taken out of service?
    Rerouting the power must be planned as far in advance as possible.
  44. What are the two results of performing live line work on transmission lines?
    • A significant savings to a utility.
    • Improved reliability. 
  45. What does the acronym MAD stand for?
    Minimum approach distance
  46. The minimum approach distances were developed based upon what two key factors?
    • The distance electricity can arc across the air at a given voltage.
    • Inadvertent movements that a line worker might make. 
  47. What has been the finding when reviewing the majority of the electrical contact accidents?
    The injured employee infringed upon the minimum approach distance in some manner.
  48. When can the MAD be reduced on an energized conductor?
    When it is covered with approved protective equipment.
  49. When should you apply protective coverings to a conductor?
    If there is any chance of infringing on the required distance.
  50. Minimum approach distances are established for what two types of exposures?
    • Phase to phase exposure
    • Phase to ground exposure
  51. Are phase to phase exposures more common in transmission systems or distribution systems?
    • Distribution.  
    • Both phase to phase exposures and phase to ground exposures are common in distribution.  In transmission phase to ground exposure is common but phase to phase is less common because the phases are so far apart.
  52. What is the most important part of any live line tool?
    The insulating member.
  53. What two factors have made wood tools obsolete? 
    • The advent of fiberglass.
    • The development of highly specialized manufacturing techniques.
  54. Why are live line sticks colored bright orange, yellow, and red?
    To make them highly visible and indicate their insulating strength.
  55. While viewing a cross section of a live line stick, what layers would you see?
    • A fiberglass and resin outer layer
    • Moisture resistant foam core
  56. A stick designed to manipulate tie wires, preformed ties, and armor rod.
    Tie stick
  57. A grip that is not spring loaded and usually has a means of being installed and removed with live line tools. 
    Conductor pulling grip
  58. Name two types of tools used to temporarily relocate and secure conductors from the immediate work area.
    • Wire tongs
    • Auxiliary support arms
  59. Tool used to provide supplemental insulation for ropes, blocks, and strap hoists.
    Link stick
  60. Live line tools should be kept dry, what two exceptions are given in the book?
    • Unavoidable exposure to precipitation during use.
    • Brief testing periods in accordance with OSHA regulations.
  61. If you anticipate using your live line tool in foul weather, what should you do to prepare it for the conditions?
    Ensure the surface is free of dirt that could become conductive when wet.
  62. What is the preferred method for storing a live line tool?
    Suspended from the ceiling or in a special rack.
  63. At the beginning of a work day or before starting a job, what should you do to a live line tool?
    • Wipe down the tool with a clean dry cloth to remove dirt or foreign matter, a light application of silicon is excellent.
    • Closely inspect the tool for damage.
  64. What two conditions can cause a live line tool to become electrically unsafe?
    • Internal conductivity from moisture ingress, dielectric deterioration, or internal damage.
    • Surface conductivity from a loss of surface gloss, wetting, or contamination.
  65. How often must live line tools be removed from service for examination, cleaning, repair, and testing according to OSHA regulations?
    Every two years.
  66. What is the specified test voltage for fiberglass tools?
    75 Kv per foot
  67. Other than meeting the two year test requirements, what else will require a tool to undergo the same testing procedures? 
    When the daily inspection routine requires a tool to be removed from service.
  68. The highest rated rubber gloves are used on voltages not greater than ____.
    36 Kv
  69. According to OSHA, who can work on energized lines?
    Qualified employees who have been trained in the specific procedures and techniques.
  70. What considerations apply to both hot sticking and rubber gloving?
    • Non reclose condition
    • Apparel
    • Conductor control
  71. What is the proper method of cleaning a hot stick?
    Rotate the stick and cloth in opposite directions while slowly moving down the length of the stick.
  72. What are the pre-job procedures for hot sticking and rubber gloving?
    • Non-reclose
    • Work location inspection
    • Equipment inspection
    • Consideration of weather
    • Job briefing
  73. Regarding pre-job procedures, what is meant by "non-reclose?"
    The protective devices on the circuit being worked on should be verified as being set to non-reclose.
  74. Hot stick work should not proceed if water droplets ______________.
    can form along the length of the stick
  75. What are the two types of rubber used for protective equipment?
    • Type 1 - not ozone (sunlight) resistant
    • Type 2 - ozone resistant
  76. When selecting rubber protective equipment, you should select a class of rubber that exceeds ________________.
    the maximum phase to phase voltage of the line that is being worked.
  77. Rubber protective covering for overhead conductors.
    Line hose
  78. What are the four styles of line hose?
    • Style A - straight conventional
    • Style B - connector end conventional
    • Style C - extended lip straight
    • Style D - extended lip connector end
  79. Rubber protective covering most commonly used to cover a conductor at it's point of attachment, also referred to as "hoodies."
    Insulator covers
  80. What are the three types of insulator covers?
    • Pin
    • Post
    • Dead end
  81. How can rubber blankets be stored?
    Laying flat or rolled.
  82. How often should rubber blankets be inspected?
    Before every use.
  83. How often must rubber blankets be tested?
    Once a year.
  84. When must line hoses, insulator covers, and plastic cover-up equipment be tested?
    When inspections raise some doubt about their condition.
  85. Plastic equipment tends to be more _____ than rubber equipment but is not as _____.
    • durable
    • flexible
  86. What are the six classes of rubber gloves and what are their maximum use voltages?
    • 00 - 500
    • 0 - 1,000
    • 1 - 7,500
    • 2 - 17,000
    • 3 - 26,500
    • 4 - 36,000
  87. ________ are one of the line worker's best safety tools. 
    Rubber gloves
  88. When rubber gloving, when does OSHA not require rubber sleeves?
    If exposed energized parts that are not being worked on are insulated, and the insulation is placed from a position in which the employees upper arms cannot come into contact with energized parts.
  89. When should rubber gloves be inspected and air tested?
    Before each use.
  90. Where should rubber gloves be stored?
    In a glove bag.
  91. Rubber gloves should have a tag on them, what two items must be on that tag?
    • The class of the glove
    • The date last tested
  92. What three things should you look for when inspecting rubber gloves?
    • Punctures
    • Cracking
    • Chemical damage
  93. When does OSHA require rubber gloves be tested?
    Before the first issue and every 6 months thereafter.
  94. When does OSHA require rubber sleeves to be tested?
    Before the first issue and every 12 months thereafter.
  95. The most adaptable of all protective coverings.  They can be wrapped or draped around odd shaped energized lines and parts and are held in place with clamp pins.  Must be electrically tested annually.
  96. Used to cover a pole being set between energized conductors or cover a pole to eliminate a second point of contact.
    Pole guards
  97. The most widely used hot stick.  Also referred to as a "grip all" stick.  Many clamps and devices are designed to be used with this stick.
  98. Conductive devices that are installed on a circuit for short periods of time.  They can be installed with hot sticks or by rubber gloves depending on the type.
    Temporary jumpers
  99. Most versatile and oldest method used for working on energized power lines.  Equipment is available for all voltage levels.  This method requires a high level of skill.
    Hot sticking
  100. The concept associated with rubber gloving where the line worker works from an aerial lift of insulated platform.
    Insulate and Isolate
  101. A term associated with hot sticking, when the metallic ends of the hot stick become energized and can become a hazard if they contact the support structure.
    Mass of metal
  102. The point at which current leaves the body in the event of accidental contact between energized conductors or equipment and an unprotected part of the body.
    Second point of contact
  103. The circuit type in which voltage drops across resistors but amperage remains the same.
  104. The circuit type in which voltage remains the same but amperage drops across the resistors.
  105. In a circuit, what is the purpose of voltage?
    To push the electrons through the circuit.
  106. In a circuit, what is the purpose of the conductor?
    It allows electrons to flow through the load and return to the source.
  107. In a circuit, what is the purpose of a load?
    It uses the electrical energy to accomplish some useful purpose.
  108. What two things should you do before applying temporary jumpers?
    • Take an amperage reading of the line to ensure your jumper or jumpers are rated for the current.
    • Thoroughly clean the conductor at the point the jumpers will be installed. 
  109. Who dictates which voltages can and cannot be rubber gloved?
    State laws and utility company policies.
  110. What is the first consideration of rubber gloving?
    Insulate and isolate
  111. Electrical contact accidents are only possible when a _________ exists.
    second point of contact
  112. What are the five ways of protecting against the second point of contact according to the book?
    • Verify the integrity of the insulation and isolation.
    • Cover all energized parts.
    • Cover all parts of the support structure in the work area including cross arms, pins, braces, poles...
    • Cover or remove guy wires, neutrals, communications, etc. from the work area.
    • Work on only one phase at a time.
  113. What should you do with the system neutral when working on energized lines and equipment?
    Cover or remove it.
  114. What is one of the most dangerous second points of contact that exist in the work area?
    The system neutral.
  115. What kind of apparel shall be worn at all times while performing rubber glove procedures?
    Flame retardant clothing.
  116. What can not be worn while working on energized lines?
    Jewelry or metal articles.
  117. What are four other names for a non-reclose condition listed in the book?
    • Non-test
    • One shot
    • Hot line hold
    • Hold off
  118. When rubber gloving, what operation should you do with a hot stick, and never with rubber gloves?
    Break load
  119. When moving a conductor, how should it be moved?
    Slowly without jerking movements, paying full attention in both directions down the line from the work location.
  120. When a conductor is to be tagged away from the work area,  what two tools are used?
    • Link stick
    • Tag line
  121. If you scheduled rubber gloving project is rained out, how should you proceed?
    Postpone or de-energize the line and work it cold.
  122. Where did the idea to use wooden sticks to work energized lines supposedly come from?
    Employees for the Mount Whitney Power Company around 1900.
  123. What tool was invented in 1916?
    The electrical hook, a spring clamp for tapping energized circuits.
  124. What milestone was reached in 1948?
    Hot line tool specialists of the A.B. Chance Company replaced insulators hot on the 287Kv line supplying power to Los Angeles from Hoover Dam.
Card Set:
Week 8
2013-06-27 00:35:13

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