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Eriksons Theory: Identitiy vs. Role Confusion
Eriksons theory regards identity as the major personality achievement of adolescence. young people who successfully resolve psychological conflict of identitiy versus role confusion construct a solid definition consisting of self chosen values and goals.
Describe changes in self concept and self esteem during adolescence
- cognitive changes lead teens' self descriptions to become more organized and consistent. personal and moral values appear as key themes.
- -self esteem further differentiates and for the most teens rises. authortitative parenting and support from others support positive self esteem.
the 4 identity statuses (IA, IM, IF, ID)
- First 2 are healthy identity statuses.
- Identity achievement: commitment exceeded by exploration.
- Ex. when asked if she would be willing to give up going into her chosen occupation she responded, "well i might but i doubt it, ive thought hard about law as a career. im pretty certain its for me."
- Identity moratorium: exploration w/o having reached commitment.
- Ex. when asked if he ever had doubts about his religious beliefs he said, "yes i guess im going thru that right now. i just dont see how there can be good and so much evil in the world."
- Next 2 are related to adjustment difficulties.
- Long term Identity foreclosure: commitment w/o exploration. taking family's word for it. (ME)
- Ex. when asked if she ever reconsidered political beliefs she said,"not really, our family is pretty much in agreement on these things."
- Identity diffusion: lack of both exploration and commitment. lack of clear direction.
- Ex. when asked about nontraditional gender roles he said,"oh idk. it doesnt make much difference to me, i can take it or leave it.
describe factors that promote identity development
healthy parental attachment, interaction w/ diverse peers, close friendships, and schools and communties that provide rich and varied opportunities
Kohlbergs theory of moral development (3 level w/ 2 stages in each)
- Level 1-Pre conventional: morality is externally controlled by rewards and punishments and authority figures
- Level 2-Conventional: Conformity to laws and rules preserves positive human relationships and societal order.
- Level 3-Post conventional: morality is defined by abstract, universal priniciples of justice.
Levels and stages of Moral development kohlberg theory
- 1. punishment and obedience - children respect authority figures, rewards r good, punishments r bad. ex. go to jail for stealing.
- 2. instrumental purpose orientation -"you do this for me, ill do that for you" - Ex, if he wants to steal thats his business and his life, he can do what he wants.
- 3. good girl-good boy - ideal reciprocity, want to obey rules bcuz it promotes social harmony. ex, no one will think ur bad if you steal the drug but will think ur inhuman if you dont and let ur wife die.
- 4. societal order maintaining orientaition - individual takes a larger perspective of social laws. if rules are disobeyed by one person than everyone will think it is ok and there will be no social order. ex, he will have to accept the punishment for breaking the law.
- 5. societal contract-regard laws as flexible prinicples for furthering human purposes. ex, although there is a law against stealing it was not meant for a circumstance like this.
- 6. universal ethical prinicple- right action is defined by self chosen priniciple of conscience that are valid for most people regardless of law and societal agreement.
- ex. it doesnt make sense to put respect for property above respect for life. people have a duty to save one another from eachother.
evaluating kohlbergs theory
- -majority of people are found at stages 3 or 4 and few move on to the post conventional level.
- -doesnt underestimate gender
why is early adolescence a period of gender intessification?
- -biological, social and cognitive factors contribute to gender intesnsiffication. as pubertal changes occur and concern w/ what others think strengthens, teenagers focus on gender linked attributes.
- - stronger for girls
during their quest for autonomy teens strive to rely more on themselves then their parents. warm parenting predict favorable outcomes.
girls friendships vs boys friendships
-girls are more based on emotional closeness and boys are based on shared activities and accomplishments.
Cliques and crowds
- cliques- more intimate. more important to girls.
- Crowds - grant teens an identity within the larger structure of the school.
-most common psychological problem of teen years. girls at greater risk. various biological and environmental factors are implicated such as hereditary, maladaptive parenting, learned helplessness, and negative life events.
-although more girls are depressed, more boys commit suicide while girls make unsuccesful attempts. teens at risk may be intelligent, solitary and withdrawn but more often are antisocial. family turmoil is common.
Discuss factors related to delinquency
- although almost all teenagers engage in some deliquent activity, only a few are serious repeat offenders. most are boys with a childhood history of conduct problems.
- -early onset means ur more likey to continue later in life. smaller group though.
- -late onset is a bigger amount but just means ur dabbling in different behavior, not a predictor of later life difficulties.