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What is the action of Glucagon?
Converts liver glycogen to glucose - resulting in a rise in BGL (only works if liver glycogen is available)
Why are fluids important in a patient with head injury?
To maintain cerebral perfusion, stopping ICP rising
What are three presentations which PEEP would be appropriate to use?
- Severe Asthma
- Pulmonary Oedema
- CO2 poisoning
List some potential reversible reasons for a cardiac arrest.
- Tension Pneumothorax
What are some non-AMI causes of chest pain?
- Pulmonary Embolism
- # Ribs
- Abdominal Aneurism
Cardiac dysfunction that leads to the inability of the heart to meed circulatory demands of the patient.
What are some of the causes of CCF?
- Myocardial disease
- RVF (increases pulmonary vascular pressure)
- Mitral regurgitation (secondary to HTN and valve incompetence)
What is pre-load?
The amount of pressure exerted on the cardiac muscle immediately prior to end of diastole
What is afterload?
The pressure against which the heart pumps
Which drugs affect preload?
Which drugs affect after load?
GTN, Adrenaline, Morphine, O2
What is hyperventilation?
Respiratory rate above the metabolic needs of the body.
What is Tachypnoea?
An increased respiratory rate from any cause.
What are the changes that occur in an asthmatics lungs?
- Hyperinflation of alveoli sac
- Increased Mucous secretion
- Gas trapping
What is the presentation of Croup?
- Seal like, barking cough
- Stridor (increasing at night)
- Has preceding viral illness
- (usually effects 6 months to 3 years)
What is the presentation of epiglottitis?
- Usually 3-7 years old
- Rapid onset
- Tripod position
What are the purposes of CSF?
- Shock absorption
- Buoyancy (uniform pressure)
- Waste removal
What are some signs and symptoms of a base of skull fracture?
- Racoon Eyes
- Decreased LOC
- 'Battle Signs' behind ears
- Cheyne Stokes breathing
- CSF or blood from ears
- One dilated pupil
What are some functions of the kidneys?
- Regulation of pH
- eliminates waste
- BP regulation
- controls RBC production
Define Cardiac output
CO = Stroke Volume x Heart Rate
What are the intrinsic Values of
a) SA node
c) Purkinjie Fibres
- a) 60-100 impulses
- b) 40-60 impulses
- c) <40 impulses
What are some collinergic symptoms?
- ('Fluid coming out of everywhere')
- mucous (snot)
What are the layers of the meninges?
- Dura Mater (External)
- Arachnoid Mater (Web like)
- Pia Mater
What does the Vagus Nerve do?
- heart rate (parasympathetic innervation - slows)
What are the Normal Values for:
a) Dead Space
b) Functional Residual Capacity
c) Residual Volume
d) Tidal Volume
e) Total Lung Capacity
f) Vital Capacity
- a) 2mls/kg
- b) 35mls/kg
- c) 20mls/kg
- d) 5-7mls/kg
- e) 80-85mls/kg
- f) 65-75mls/kg
Where is ventilation controlled?
- In the Medulla Oblongata
- (Pons controls fine tuning)
What are the four types of hypoxia?
- Hypoxic Hypoxia (reduced arterial O2)
- Anaemic Hypoxia (too few RBC's or Hb)
- Histotoxic Hypoxia (Cellular Impairment)
- Iscaemic Hypoxia (Circulation Impairment)