Music History 1 Test 1

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Music History 1 Test 1
2013-06-24 12:03:09
Music History Test

Music History 1 Test 1
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  1. Liturgy
    • Prescribed order for the conduct of worship
    • Provides both the context and the shaping plan for the musical expression of chant
    • Largest unified artistic experience possible
    • Every piece of chant has its particular place or places within space and time provided by architectural settings and within a gigantic liturgical form
    • Collection of music and texts divided into 2 different groups (Divine Office and The Mass)
  2. Divine Office
    • Meditative act by monks and nuns
    • Psalms are the heart and soul of it
    • Relatively private setting for worship
    • More reserved
  3. The Mass
    • Public Liturgical Service in 3 parts, with 2 types of music/text
    • Includes Biblical passages, newly composed music, mostly prayers and teaching acts
    • Most people were illiterate in the 12th century, so this helped spread the Word
    • It is more showy, florid, and melismatic
  4. Sections of the Mass
    • Introduction ("fore-Mass")
    • Liturgy of the Word
    • Liturgy of the Eucharist
  5. Different types of text in the Mass
    • Proper: changes every day
    • Ordinary: always the same, but the music changes
    • Ordinary texts were intended to be sung by the congregation
    • Proper texts tended to be reserved for the choir and solo singers
  6. Trope
    • Any newly composed music or text added to a previously existing work
    • Easter Introit Resurrexi et adhuc tecum sum
  7. Sequence
    • Newly composed piece of music or word text written for an event or someone special
    • Became an additional movement to the Mass Proper on high feast days
    • They are almost entirely syllabic
    • Hildegard of Bingen: Columba aspexit (Sequence for St. Maximinus)
  8. Hildegard of Bingen
    • 12th century rock-star Abbess
    • Mystic visionary
    • Musician
    • Doctor (herbalist) and scientist
    • Author of 9 books
    • Charismatic preacher
    • Corresponded with popes and royal leaders
    • Something characteristic of her music are the leaps up and gradual descending lines
  9. Church (melodic) modes
    • There are four different modes with 2 different categories (authentic and plagal)
    • Which mode depends on where the music spends most of its duration and where it ends
  10. Authentic modes
    • Normally has an octave range from beginning to end
    • Reciting tone (dominant) is usually a 5th above the final tone
    • Ends on "tonic"
  11. Plagal modes
    • Usually stays in an octave
    • Can go a fourth below the final
    • Reciting tone is usually a third below the reciting tone of the relative authentic mode
  12. Final
    • Like "tonic"
    • Starting and ending pitch (home base)
  13. Ambitus
    • Means range
    • The notes that are usually included
    • It is approximate
  14. Reciting tone
    • Secondary pitch used for recitation
    • Melodic gestures curl around it
  15. Chanson (Trouvéres) or canso (Troubadours)
    • Literally means "song"
    • French (Trouvéres) or Provencal (Troubadours) language
    • Can refer to a poem or song with music
    • Usually dealt with courtly love
    • Bernart de Ventadorn: Can vei la lauzeta mover (canso)
    • Comtessa di Dia: A chanter m'er de so qu'iue (canso)
  16. Troubadours
    • Composers of secular music in the 12th century
    • They write high level music and poetry
    • Bernart de Ventadorn was possibly the most famous
  17. The Chivalric Code
    • Set of accepted "rules" of conduct for noblemen (knights) related to combat and gallantry
    • It ensured order of law and hierarchical government (Church, king/lord, women, fellow knights receive highest merit)
    • Includes honor, faith, bravery, duty, trustworthiness, honesty, gentility
  18. Bernart de Ventadorn
    • Maybe most famous troubadour
    • 18 melodies survive for 45 extant poems
    • "Can vei la lauzeta": strophic form, stanza, contrefacta
  19. La Comtessa de Dia
    • Trobairitz of the 12th century
    • Her identity remains a mystery (her first name was not listed in her biography)
    • "A chanter m'er de so qu'iue": strophic form
  20. Notre Dame School
    • Group of composers working at or near the Notre Dame Cathedral and the music they produced
    • Medieval polyphony
    • Léonin and Pérotin
  21. Organum
    • Medieval polyphony
    • Used in sacred music earlier on
    • Three kinds: parallel, note-to-note, and melismatic (florid)
  22. Parallel Organum
    Parallel doublings in the perfect intervals (4th and 5th)
  23. Note-to-note organum
    • The text underlay of the two voices is the same
    • They are more coordinated
    • The rhythms are not notated
  24. Melismatic (Florid) Organum
    • Slow-moving lower line and very melismatic higher line
    • Comes from Abbey at St. Martial
    • No notated rhythm
  25. Discant
    • Type of organum where both or all voices have notated rhythm (rhythmic modes)
    • Voices move in more nearly equal rhythm
    • Might produce rhythmic combinations of one note against 2, 3, or more; 2 against 3; 3 against 4; and so on
  26. Rhythmic Modes
    • System for notating rhythm for polyphonic music
    • Gets the ball rolling for figuring out an easier system
    • Perfect: divisible by 3
    • Imperfect: divisible by 2
  27. Leonin
    • First composer of polyphonic organum music
    • Used rhythmic modes
    • Replaced some monophony with polyphony in the solo sections of Mass proper chants for feasts/important days
    • Original chant would be used for the choir sections
  28. Motet
    • Polytextual, polyphonic composition of the middle ages, usually based on a pre-existing melody placed in the tenor of the new work
    • Means word+music
    • Has a lot of words
    • The upper voices have new poems
    • The conflict of different texts makes them unintelligible in performance
  29. Ars Nova
    • The new art
    • Philippe de Vitry developed the ideas in this treatise
    • Contributed a brilliant and radically new approach to the problem of notating complex rhythms (mensuration=measurement)
  30. Isorhythm
    • Same rhythm
    • How you organize a line of polyphonic music around a tenor part with color and talea
  31. Color
    Repeating pattern of pitches in the tenor
  32. Talea
    • Repeating rhythmic pattern in the tenor voice
    • This was new
  33. Philippe de Vitry
    • The greatest music theorist of his time
    • Developed the ideas in the treatise Ars nova
    • Secretary and adviser to several kings of France
    • Ecclesiastical appointment as bishop of Meaux