Biology Final Exam review

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megame623
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22489
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Biology Final Exam review
Updated:
2010-06-07 17:40:07
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Biology exam
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Review for Biology final exam; photosynthesis/respiration, cell division, genetics, protein synthesis, evolution, comparative anatomy and physiology, and homeostasis and nutrition.
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  1. Explain how a human gets energy from the sun.
    We consume plants and animals that have consumed plants, and the plants get their energy from the sun.
  2. How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration dependent on one another?
    The products of one are the reactants of the other.
  3. When a person loses weight, where does most of that mass go?
    Exhaled as CO2
  4. When a tree gains mass, where did the majority of the mass come from?
    CO2
  5. Purpose of photosynthesis?
    Obtain energy from the sun and make glucose
  6. Purpose of cellular respiration?
    Break down glucose into usable energy
  7. Photosynthesis: plant, animal, or both?
    Plant
  8. Cellular respiration: plant, animal, or both?
    Both
  9. What organelle is needed for photosynthesis?
    Chloroplast
  10. What organelle is needed for cellular respiration?
    Mitochondria
  11. What is the equation for photosynthesis?
    CO2 + H2O + sunlight = C6H12O6
  12. What is the equation for cellular respiration?
    C6H12O6 = CO2 + H2O + ATP (energy)
  13. In the photosynthesis equation, which reactant does the carbon in glucose come from?
    CO2
  14. The oxygen released during photosynthesis comes from which reactant?
    CO2
  15. Why would levels of carbon dioxide increase in a pond at night?
    Both fish and plants are using cellular respiration, with CO2 as a byproduct and O2 as a reactant.
  16. Why would levels of oxygen increase in a pond during the day?
    Plants are going through photosynthesis, which uses CO2 as a reactant and O2 as a product.
  17. Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Which uses oxygen? Which produces more energy (ATP)?
    • a) Aerobic
    • b) Aerobic
  18. What is the purpose of mitosis?
    To make more somatic cells for growth, repair, and replacement.
  19. What is the purpose of meiosis?
    To produce gametes, or sex cells.
  20. What type of reproduction uses mitosis?
    Asexual
  21. What type of reproduction uses meiosis?
    Sexual
  22. How many chromosomes are in the daughter cells after mitosis?
    Equal amount as parent cells
  23. How many chromosomes are in the daughter cells after meiosis?
    1/2 amount as parent cells
  24. How many daughter cells are produced in mitosis?
    1
  25. How many daughter cells are produced in meiosis?
    4 sperm or 1 egg and 3 polar bodies
  26. In mitosis, are the daughter cells identical?
    Yes, usually
  27. In meiosis, are the daughter cells identical?
    No
  28. If the parent cell has 50 chromosomes and goes through mitosis, the daughter cell(s) would have how many chromosomes?
    50
  29. If the parent cell has 50 chromosomes and goes through meiosis, the daughter cell(s) would have how many chromosomes?
    25
  30. What are some advantages to sexual reproduction?
    Variation
  31. What are some advantages to asexual reproduction?
    Produces many, very fast
  32. What are some disadvantages to sexual reproduction?
    Slow
  33. What are some disadvantages to asexual reproduction?
    No variety
  34. What is a stem cell?
    An undifferentiated cell
  35. Where are stem cells found?
    Bone marrow, fetus's, umbilical cord, spinal fluid
  36. What are stem cells used for?
    Repair and replacement, all types of body cells in fetus's
  37. What internal factors affect differentiation?
    Temperature, carcinogens, nutrition, chemicals

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