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Name phases A-D
What is the name of angle E, and what is it's typical measurement?
- I- deadspace, fresh gas
- II- deadspace, alveolar gas
- III- alveolar gas plateau
- IV- inspiration
- α- ~ 100
- β- ~ 90
What is typical O2 consumption?
consumption __________ with decreasing weight.
- 3.5 ml/kg
- increase (e.g. 50kg is 3.7 ml/kg)
how long after a meal, does carbohydrate metabolism become minimum and fat
What is the resp quotient equation and what is mixed metablism value?
What is the diff btw a capnograph, capnometer and capnometry?
- capnograph- graph
- capnometer- measures a NUMBER
- capnometry- act of measuring CO2 (number)
Name phases and lung location
- IV- trachea
- II- bronchus
- III- alveoli, small airways
Capnograph is measured as a function of _____.
What will happen to the α angle in pt's with obstructive lung dz?
how is MAINSTREAM gas analysis performed?
Has sampling occurs at a rate of about ______ ml/min. If the sampling line is placed too close to __ ______, inspiratory gas may be trapped and skew reading.
What are benefits of sidestream measurement?
- not limited to CO2, not bulky, no extra deadspace, cheaper
- no "leak in circuit, decreased artifact, faster response
What would cause this to appear on the capnograph?
Obstruction of lungs, or tube
What are normal and abnormal EtCo2-PaCO2 gradients?
•Normal 0 to 7 mmHg
•Slightly Abnormal 7 to 10 mmHg
•Moderately Abnormal 10 to 13 mmHg
•Markedly Abnormal > 13 mmHg
What two things can increase CO2?
temp and metabolism increases
what things cause increase in P(a-Et)CO2
- pulmonary hypoperfusion
- cardiac arrest
- pulmonary embolism
- High rate, low tidal Vol ventilation
If expiratory valve is not seated correctly what will happen?
- baseline CO2 won't be zero, will increase at an angle
- CO2 will increase but base will still be zero
CO2 is calculated by percent times what?
barometric pressure minus water vapor pressure (47)
What does this indicate?
breathing over ventilator
ID the waveform cause
What can cause an increase in baseline CO2 measurement?
- expiratory valve incompetent
- inner tube problem coaxial system
- inspiratory valve incomp- sometimes
What will cause this waveform?
how would it vary with a circle system?
- incompetent unidirectional inspiratory valve
- baseline won't be zero
What could cause occasional rebreathing?
wet valve, sticks occasionally
Low end tidal CO2 can be caused by what?
- increase in deadspace
What would cause this waveform?
one lung transplant, kyphoscoliosis
What would cause a decrease in plateau?
Sudden drop in CO2 caused by?
- disconnect of circuit
- PE or sudden blood loss with continued pulm blood flow, drop in CO
An increasing PaCO2 to ETCO2
gradient implies an increase in ____ _______.
Gradual increase in CO2 slope is caused by:
obstruction, rising temp or hypoventilation
canpnometry may not respond well to ______ ventilatory rate. this will case _____ waves.