General Exam-Operating Procedures

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rledwith
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General Exam-Operating Procedures
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2013-07-06 10:12:26
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Amateur Radio General Exam - G2 Question Set - Operating Procedures
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  1. G2A01 Which sideband is most commonly used for voice communications on frequencies of 14 MHz or higher?
    A. Upper sideband
    B. Lower sideband
    C. Vestigial sideband
    D. Double sideband
    • (A)
    • Single-sideband (SSB) modulation removes the carrier and one sideband from an AM signal to conserve spectrum and for improved power efficiency. Amateurs normally use the upper sideband for 20 meter phone operation. Whether the upper or lower sideband is used is strictly a matter of convention and not of regulation, except on 60 meters where USB is required. The convention to use the lower sideband on the bands below 9 MHz and the upper sideband on the higher-frequency bands developed from the design requirements of early SSB transmitters. Although modern amateur SSB equipment is more flexible, the convention persists. If everyone else on a particular band is using a certain sideband, you will need to use the same one in order to be able to communicate.
  2. G2A02 Which of the following modes is most commonly used for voice communications on the 160, 75, and 40 meter bands?
    A. Upper sideband
    B. Lower sideband
    C. Vestigial sideband
    D. Double sideband
    • (B)
    • Amateurs normally use the lower sideband for 160, 75 and 40 meter phone operation. Whether the upper or lower sideband is used is strictly a matter of convention, and not of regulation, except on 60 meters where USB is required. The convention to use the lower sideband on the bands below 9 MHz and the upper sideband on the higher-frequency bands developed from the design requirements of early SSB transmitters. Although modern amateur SSB equipment is more flexible, the convention persists. If everyone else on a particular band is using a certain sideband, you will need to use the same one in order to be able to communicate.
  3. G2A03 Which of the following is most commonly used for SSB voice communications in the VHF and UHF bands?
    A. Upper sideband
    B. Lower sideband
    C. Vestigial sideband
    D. Double sideband
    • (A)
    • Amateurs normally use the upper sideband for VHF and UHF phone operation. Whether the upper or lower sideband is used is strictly a matter of convention, and not of regulation, except on 60 meters where USB is required. The convention to use the lower sideband on the bands below 9 MHz and the upper sideband on the higher-frequency bands developed from the design requirements of early SSB transmitters. Although modern amateur SSB equipment is more flexible, the convention persists. If everyone else on a particular band is using a certain sideband, you will need to use the same one in order to be able to communicate.
  4. G2A04 Which mode is most commonly used for voice communications on the 17 and 12 meter bands?
    A. Upper sideband
    B. Lower sideband
    C. Vestigial sideband
    D. Double sideband
    • (A)
    • Amateurs normally use the upper sideband for 17 and 12 meter phone operation. Whether the upper or lower sideband is used is strictly a matter of convention, and not of regulation, except on 60 meters where USB is required. The convention to use the lower sideband on the bands below 9 MHz and the upper sideband on the higher-frequency bands developed from the design requirements of early SSB transmitters. Although modern amateur SSB equipment is more flexible, the convention persists. If everyone else on a particular band is using a certain sideband, you will need to use the same one in order to be able to communicate.
  5. G2A05 Which mode of voice communication is most commonly used on the high frequency amateur bands?
    A. Frequency modulation
    B. Double sideband
    C. Single sideband
    D. Phase modulation
    • (C)
    • Most amateurs who use voice communications on the high frequency bands use single sideband (SSB) voice. There are some operators who prefer the high-fidelity audio of double-sideband full-carrier amplitude modulation (AM). AM requires more than twice the bandwidth of an SSB signal, however. There is also some frequency modulated (FM) and phase modulated (PM) voice operation on the 10 meter band, but that mode also requires a much wider bandwidth than SSB. Some amateurs are beginning to experiment with digitally encoded voice communications, but SSB is the most common HF voice mode.
  6. G2A06 Which of the following is an advantage when using single sideband as compared to other analog voice modes on the HF amateur bands?
    A. Very high fidelity voice modulation
    B. Less bandwidth used and higher power efficiency
    C. Ease of tuning on receive and immunity to impulse noise
    D. Less subject to static crashes (atmospherics)
    • (B)
    • Single sideband (SSB) voice communication is used much more frequently than other voice modes on the HF bands because it uses less spectrum space. The RF carrier is not transmitted with an SSB signal. That means SSB transmissions are more power efficient, since the full transmitter power can be used to transmit the one sideband rather than being divided between the two sidebands and the carrier as it would be for AM.
  7. G2A07 Which of the following statements is true of the single sideband (SSB) voice mode?
    A. Only one sideband and the carrier are transmitted; the other sideband is suppressed
    B. Only one sideband is transmitted; the other sideband and carrier are suppressed
    C. SSB voice transmissions have higher average power than any other mode
    D. SSB is the only mode that is authorized on the 160, 75 and 40 meter amateur bands
    • (B)
    • Single sideband (SSB) voice transmissions are identified by which sideband is used. If the sideband with a frequency lower than the RF carrier frequency is used, then the signal is known as a lower sideband (LSB) transmission. If the sideband with a frequency higher than the RF carrier frequency is used, then the signal is known as an upper sideband (USB) transmission. In both cases the opposite sideband is suppressed. Amateurs normally use lower sideband on the 160, 75/80 and 40 meter bands, and upper sideband on the 20, 17, 15, 12 and 10 meter bands. This is not a requirement of the FCC Rules in Part 97, though. It is simply by common agreement. FCC Rules do, however, require amateurs to use USB on the five channels of the 60 meter band.
  8. G2A08 Which of the following is a recommended way to break into a conversation when using phone?
    A. Say "QRZ" several times followed by your call sign
    B. Say your call sign during a break between transmissions from the other stations
    C. Say "Break. Break. Break." and wait for a response
    D. Say "CQ" followed by the call sign of either station
    • (B)
    • To break into a conversation, you will have to wait until both stations are listening so that your signal will be heard. In order that your transmissions be identified during this brief period, simply state your call sign. No “over” or “break” is required, nor do you have to give either of the transmitting station’s call signs.
  9. G2A09 Why do most amateur stations use lower sideband on the 160, 75 and 40 meter bands?
    A. Lower sideband is more efficient than upper sideband at these frequencies
    B. Lower sideband is the only sideband legal on these frequency bands
    C. Because it is fully compatible with an AM detector
    D. Current amateur practice is to use lower sideband on these frequency bands
    • (D)
    • Whether the upper or lower sideband is used is strictly a matter of convention, and not of regulation, except on 60 meters where USB is required. The convention to use the lower sideband on the bands below 9 MHz and the upper sideband on the higher-frequency bands developed from the design requirements of early SSB transmitters. Although modern amateur SSB equipment is more flexible, the convention persists. If everyone else on a particular band is using a certain sideband, you will need to use the same one in order to be able to communicate.
  10. G2A10 Which of the following statements is true of SSB VOX operation?
    A. The received signal is more natural sounding
    B. VOX allows "hands free" operation
    C. Frequency spectrum is conserved
    D. Provides more power output
    • (B)
    • The purpose of a voice operated transmit (VOX) circuit is to provide automatic transmit/receive (TR) switching within an amateur station. By simply speaking into the microphone, the antenna is connected to transmitter, the receiver is muted and the transmitter is activated. When you stop speaking, the VOX circuit switches everything back to receive. Using VOX allows hands-free operation.
  11. G2A11 What does the expression "CQ DX" usually indicate?
    A. A general call for any station
    B. The caller is listening for a station in Germany
    C. The caller is looking for any station outside their own country
    D. A distress call
    • (C)
    • DX means “distant stations” in ham jargon, so combining CQ which means “I am calling any station” with DX means “I am calling any distant station.” You may also hear stations making targeted calls by combining CQ with some other description, such as “CQ mobile stations" or “CQ California.” It is polite to avoid responding if you are not of the type of station being called.
  12. G2B01 Which of the following is true concerning access to frequencies?
    A. Nets always have priority
    B. QSO’s in process always have priority
    C. No one has priority access to frequencies, common courtesy should be a guide
    D. Contest operations must always yield to non-contest use of frequencies
    • (C)
    • Except when the FCC has declared there to be a communications emergency and designated specific frequencies for emergency communications, no single or group of amateurs has priority on any amateur frequency. Good operating practice is to use the flexibility of the amateur service to avoid interference and minimize any interference from your operation.
  13. G2B02 What is the first thing you should do if you are communicating with another amateur station and hear a station in distress break in?
    A. Continue your communication because you were on frequency first
    B. Acknowledge the station in distress and determine what assistance may be needed
    C. Change to a different frequency
    D. Immediately cease all transmissions
    • (B)
    • Whenever you hear a station in distress (where there is immediate threat to human life or property), you should take whatever action is necessary to determine what assistance that station needs and attempt to provide it. Don’t assume that some other station will handle the emergency; you may be the only station receiving the distress signal. If you do hear a station in distress, the first thing you should do is to acknowledge that you heard the station, and then ask the operator where they are located and what assistance they need.
  14. G2B03 If propagation changes during your contact and you notice increasing interference from other activity on the same frequency, what should you do?
    A. Tell the interfering stations to change frequency
    B. Report the interference to your local Amateur Auxiliary Coordinator
    C. As a common courtesy, move your contact to another frequency
    D. Increase power to overcome interference
    • (C)
    • Good operating practice suggests that whoever can most easily resolve an interference problem be the one to do so. If you begin to have interference from other activity on the same frequency, moving your contact to another frequency may be the simplest thing to do. Switching antennas or rotating a beam antenna may also achieve the same results.
  15. G2B04 When selecting a CW transmitting frequency, what minimum frequency separation should you allow in order to minimize interference to stations on adjacent frequencies?
    A. 5 to 50 Hz
    B. 150 to 500 Hz
    C. 1 to 3 kHz
    D. 3 to 6 kHz
    • (B)
    • The more bandwidth occupied by a signal, the more frequency separation you will need from a contact currently in progress to avoid interference. CW emissions require the least bandwidth and need the least frequency separation. Most radios use narrow filters for CW reception, so you should be able to select an operating frequency within about 150 to 500 Hz from another CW station without causing interference.
  16. G2B05 What is the customary minimum frequency separation between SSB signals under normal conditions?
    A. Between 150 and 500 Hz
    B. Approximately 3 kHz
    C. Approximately 6 kHz
    D. Approximately 10 kHz
    • (B)
    • The more bandwidth occupied by a signal, the more frequency separation you will need from a contact currently in progress to avoid interference. Single-sideband (SSB) signals require considerably more bandwidth than CW and therefore much more frequency separation between contacts. You will need approximately 3 kHz of separation from another contact under normal conditions to avoid causing interference.
  17. G2B06 What is a practical way to avoid harmful interference when selecting a frequency to call CQ on CW or phone?
    A. Send "QRL?" on CW, followed by your call sign; or, if using phone, ask if the frequency is in use, followed by your call sign
    B. Listen for 2 minutes before calling CQ
    C. Send the letter "V" in Morse code several times and listen for a response
    D. Send “QSY” on CW or if using phone, announce “the frequency is in use”, then send your call and listen for a response
    • (A)
    • After listening for a short period of time, if you do not hear another station transmitting on the frequency, it is good practice to make a short transmission asking if the frequency is in use. It may be that due to propagation you are unable to hear the transmitting station, but the listening station can hear you. On CQ, the Q-signal "QRL?", and on phone, "Is the frequency in use?" followed by your call sign give the opportunity for another station to respond.
  18. G2B07 Which of the following complies with good amateur practice when choosing a frequency on which to initiate a call?
    A. Check to see if the channel is assigned to another station
    B. Identify your station by transmitting your call sign at least 3 times
    C. Follow the voluntary band plan for the operating mode you intend to use
    D. All of these choices are correct
    • (C)
    • Under normal conditions, following the voluntary band plan in Table G2B07 is a good way to choose a frequency compatible with your planned type of operating. Very crowded bands or special operating events require that you be flexible in your frequency choices.
  19. G2B08 What is the “DX window” in a voluntary band plan?
    A. A portion of the band that should not be used for contacts between stations within the 48 contiguous United States
    B. An FCC rule that prohibits contacts between stations within the United States and possessions on that band segment
    C. An FCC rule that allows only digital contacts in that portion of the band
    D. A portion of the band that has been voluntarily set aside for digital contacts only
    • (A)
    • Outside the United States, particularly in ITU Regions 1 and 3, amateurs share the 160 and 80 meter band with government and commercial stations. They may have very limited allocations, as well. The DX window is a section of the band where these stations may be contacted without their having to compete with stronger domestic signals. DX windows are also generally used only for contacts with stations outside the contiguous United States and Canada.
  20. G2B09 Who may be the control operator of an amateur station transmitting in RACES to assist relief operations during a disaster?
    A. Only a person holding an FCC issued amateur operator license
    B. Only a RACES net control operator
    C. A person holding an FCC issued amateur operator license or an appropriate government official
    D. Any control operator when normal communication systems are operational
    • (A) [97.407(a)]
    • The control operator of a RACES station must have an FCC-issued amateur operator license and be certified by a civil defense organization as a member.
  21. G2B10 When may the FCC restrict normal frequency operations of amateur stations participating in RACES?
    A. When they declare a temporary state of communication emergency
    B. When they seize your equipment for use in disaster communications
    C. Only when all amateur stations are instructed to stop transmitting
    D. When the President’s War Emergency Powers have been invoked
    • (D) [97.407(b)]
    • If the War Emergency Powers have been activated, RACES stations are restricted to operations in the frequency ranges listed in §97.407(b).
  22. G2B11 What frequency should be used to send a distress call?
    A. Whatever frequency has the best chance of communicating the distress message
    B. Only frequencies authorized for RACES or ARES stations
    C. Only frequencies that are within your operating privileges
    D. Only frequencies used by police, fire or emergency medical services
    • (A) [97.405]
    • When normal communications are not available and the immediate safety of human life or protection of property is involved, all of the normal rules for an amateur station are suspended so that you can obtain assistance. This means that any method of communication, on any frequency, and at any power output, may be used to communicate and resolve the emergency. It doesn’t matter if the distress is personal to the station or a general disaster. Just be sure you have a real emergency!
  23. G2B12 When is an amateur station allowed to use any means at its disposal to assist another station in distress?
    A. Only when transmitting in RACES
    B. At any time when transmitting in an organized net
    C. At any time during an actual emergency
    D. Only on authorized HF frequencies
    • (C) [97.405(b)]
    • No FCC rule prevents an amateur station from using any means of radio communications at its disposal to assist a station in distress.
  24. G2C01 Which of the following describes full break-in telegraphy (QSK)?
    A. Breaking stations send the Morse code prosign BK
    B. Automatic keyers are used to send Morse code instead of hand keys
    C. An operator must activate a manual send/receive switch before and after every transmission
    D. Transmitting stations can receive between code characters and elements
    • (D)
    • Full break-in telegraphy allows you to receive signals between your transmitted Morse code dots and dashes and between words. The advantage is that if you are sending a long message, the receiving station can send back to you (break in) and stop you for repeats of missed words. QSK is the Q signal used to describe this type of operation.
  25. G2C02 What should you do if a CW station sends "QRS"?
    A. Send slower
    B. Change frequency
    C. Increase your power
    D. Repeat everything twice
    • (A)
    • QRS is the Q-signal that means “Send slower”. To ask if you should send slower, send QRS? Conversely, to increase speed, QRQ is used.
  26. G2C03 What does it mean when a CW operator sends "KN" at the end of a transmission?
    A. Listening for novice stations
    B. Operating full break-in
    C. Listening only for a specific station or stations
    D. Closing station now
    • (C)
    • KN is an example of a CW prosign, procedural signals that help coordinate the exchange of messages and the beginning and ending of transmissions. The patterns of dots and dashes that make up prosigns are described by a pair of regular letters that, if sent together without a pause, are equivalent to the prosign. (Prosigns are often written with a line over the letters to indicate they are sent with no spaces between them as a single character.)
  27. G2C04 What does it mean when a CW operator sends "CL" at the end of a transmission?
    A. Keep frequency clear
    B. Operating full break-in
    C. Listening only for a specific station or stations
    D. Closing station
    • (D)
    • CL is an example of a CW prosign, procedural signals that help coordinate the exchange of messages and the beginning and ending of transmissions. The patterns of dots and dashes that make up prosigns are described by a pair of regular letters that, if sent together without a pause, are equivalent to the prosign. (Prosigns are often written with a line over the letters to indicate they are sent with no spaces between them as a single character.)
  28. G2C05 What is the best speed to use answering a CQ in Morse Code?
    A. The fastest speed at which you are comfortable copying
    B. The speed at which the CQ was sent
    C. A slow speed until contact is established
    D. 5 wpm, as all operators licensed to operate CW can copy this speed
    • (B)
    • An operator calling CQ is assumed to be sending at a speed at which he or she feels comfortable receiving. Responding at a significantly higher speed is impolite and may be embarrassing to the other operator if they are unable to copy your response. If you are uncomfortable responding at the sending station’s speed, send at the highest rate at which you are comfortable receiving. It is good practice to respond to calling stations at their sending speed, if it is significantly slower.
  29. G2C06 What does the term “zero beat” mean in CW operation?
    A. Matching the speed of the transmitting station
    B. Operating
    split to avoid interference on frequency
    C. Sending without error
    D. Matching your transmit frequency to the frequency of a received signal.
    • (D)
    • Zero beat means to match the frequency of the transmitting station. When separate receivers and transmitters were the norm, a transmitter’s frequency had to be adjusted to match the received signal’s frequency. This was done by spotting -- turning on the transmitter’s low power stages and listening for that signal in the receiver. When the beat frequency between the desired signal and the transmitter’s spotting signal reached zero frequency or zero beat, the transmitter signal and the received signal were on matching frequencies.
  30. G2C07 When sending CW, what does a “C” mean when added to the RST report?
    A. Chirpy or unstable signal
    B. Report was read from S meter reading rather than estimated
    C. 100 percent copy
    D. Key clicks
    • (A)
    • An RST with “C” appended, such as 579C, indicates that the signal is being received with chirp, a short frequency shift as the transmitter stabilizes after keying. It’s a very distinctive sound and is caused by the transmitter’s oscillator changing frequency when the key is closed. This can be due to oscillator circuit design or poor regulation of the transmitter power supply.
  31. G2C08 What prosign is sent to indicate the end of a formal message when using CW?
    A. SK
    B. BK
    C. AR
    D. KN
    • (C)
    • The ARRL National Traffic System has established specific procedures for passing formal written messages by Amateur Radio. Even if you don’t participate in traffic nets, it is a good idea to be familiar with the procedures for handling such messages. It can be especially helpful in an emergency for a number of reasons. By following the standard procedures it is more likely that an emergency message will be transmitted (and received) correctly. When sending formal messages using Morse code (CW), you send the message preamble, the address, message body and signature. To indicate that this is the end of the message, send the CW procedural signal (prosign) “AR” to show clearly that all the information has been sent. When the receiving station has accurately recorded the entire message, they will acknowledge receipt of the message by sending “QSL” or simply “R” for “received.”
  32. G2C09 What does the Q signal "QSL" mean?
    A. Send slower
    B. We have already confirmed by card
    C. I acknowledge receipt
    D. We have worked before
    • (C)
    • QSL is the Q-signal that means “I acknowledge receipt”. Informally, it is often used to indicate that a transmission was received and understood. QSL cards are exchanged to confirm that a contact was made.
  33. G2C10 What does the Q signal "QRQ" mean?
    A. Slow down
    B. Send faster
    C. Zero beat my signal
    D. Quitting operation
    • (B)
    • QRQ is the Q-signal that means “Send faster." To ask if you should send faster, send QRQ? Conversely, to decrease speed, QRS is used.
  34. G2C11 What does the Q signal “QRV” mean?
    A. You are sending too fast
    B. There is interference on the frequency
    C. I am quitting for the day
    D. I am ready to receive messages
    • (D)
    • QRV is the Q-signal that means “I am ready to copy” and indicates that the station with the message may begin transmitting. QRV is used whether the message is formal traffic or just regular conversation.
  35. G2D01 What is the Amateur Auxiliary to the FCC?
    A. Amateur volunteers who are formally enlisted to monitor the airwaves for rules violations
    B. Amateur volunteers who conduct amateur licensing examinations
    C. Amateur volunteers who conduct frequency coordination for amateur VHF repeaters
    D. Amateur volunteers who use their station equipment to help civil defense organizations in times of emergency
    • (A)
    • The purpose of the Amateur Auxiliary is to help ensure amateur self-regulation and see that amateurs follow the FCC rules properly. The Amateur Auxiliary volunteers deal only with amateur-to-amateur interference and improper operation. The other answer choices describe other Amateur Radio activities. Amateur volunteers who conduct licensing examinations are called Volunteer Examiners (VEs). Amateurs in charge of frequency coordination for repeaters are called Frequency Coordinators. Amateurs who help civil defense organizations in times of emergency are members of the Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES).
  36. G2D02 Which of the following are objectives of the Amateur Auxiliary?
    A. To conduct efficient and orderly amateur licensing examinations
    B. To encourage amateur self regulation and compliance with the rules
    C. To coordinate repeaters for efficient and orderly spectrum usage
    D. To provide emergency and public safety communications
    • (B)
    • The purpose of the Amateur Auxiliary is to help ensure amateur self-regulation and see that amateurs follow the FCC rules properly. The Amateur Auxiliary volunteers deal only with amateur-to-amateur interference and improper operation. The other answer choices describe other Amateur Radio activities. Amateur volunteers who conduct licensing examinations are called Volunteer Examiners (VEs). Amateurs in charge of frequency coordination for repeaters are called Frequency Coordinators. Amateurs who help civil defense organizations in times of emergency are members of the Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES). Many amateurs also volunteer to help provide emergency and public safety communications as members of ARRL’s Amateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES).
  37. G2D03 What skills learned during “hidden transmitter hunts” are of help to the Amateur Auxiliary?
    A. Identification of out of band operation
    B. Direction finding used to locate stations violating FCC Rules
    C. Identification of different call signs
    D. Hunters have an opportunity to transmit on non-amateur frequencies
    • (B)
    • Friendly competitions to locate hidden transmitters, sometimes called "fox hunts" or "bunny hunts", allow participants to practice their radio direction-finding skills which are useful in locating harmful interference sources. The Amateur Auxiliary can use "Fox Hunters" to document interference cases and report them to the proper enforcement bureau. Fox hunts also make everyone aware that there is a plan in place to find and eliminate an interference source.
  38. G2D04 Which of the following describes an azimuthal projection map?
    A. A world map that shows accurate land masses
    B. A world map projection centered on a particular location
    C. A world map that shows the angle at which an amateur satellite crosses the equator
    D. A world map that shows the number of degrees longitude that an amateur satellite appears to move westward at the equator with each orbit
    • (B)
    • An azimuthal map, or azimuthal-equidistant projection map, is also called a great circle map. When this type of map is centered on your location, a straight line is equivalent to stretching a string between two points on a globe, and will give you the shortest distance between two points. This type of map is used for determining the direction to point your antenna for short-path communications. (A compass bearing 180 degrees different from the short-path direction will indicate the direction to point your antenna for long-path communications.)
  39. G2D05 When is it permissible to communicate with amateur stations in countries outside the areas administered by the Federal Communications Commission?
    A. Only when the foreign country has a formal third party agreement filed with the FCC
    B. When the contact is with amateurs in any country except those whose administrations have notified the ITU that they object to such communications
    C. When the contact is with amateurs in any country as long as the communication is conducted in English
    D. Only when the foreign country is a member of the International Amateur Radio Union
    • (B) [97.111(a)(1)]
    • U.S. amateurs are permitted to contact amateurs in any other country. There have been a very few instances in which a government has prohibited contact between its amateurs and those of a particular country
  40. G2D06 How is a directional antenna pointed when making a “long-path” contact with another station?
    A. Toward the rising Sun
    B. Along the gray line
    C. 180 degrees from its short-path heading
    D. Toward the north
    • (C)
    • The shortest direct route, or great-circle path between two points, is called the short-path. If a directional antenna is pointed in exactly the opposite direction, 180 degrees different from the short-path direction, communications can be attempted on the long-path. Long-path communication may be available when the more direct short path is closed. Because of the higher number of hops required, long path often works best when the path is across the ocean, a good reflector of HF signals.
  41. G2D07 Which of the following is required by the FCC rules when operating in the 60 meter band?
    A. If you are using other than a dipole antenna, you must keep a record of the gain of your antenna
    B. You must keep a log of the date, time, frequency, power level and stations worked
    C. You must keep a log of all third party traffic
    D. You must keep a log of the manufacturer of your equipment and the antenna used
    • (A) [97.303s]
    • The FCC Rules for operating on the amateur 60 meter band are quite different from the rules for any other amateur band. One significant difference is the requirement to transmit with no more than 50 watts effective radiated power (ERP). ERP is a measurement of power as compared to that radiated from a dipole. If you are using a half-wavelength dipole antenna, you can use up to 50 W PEP from your transmitter on that band. If you are using an antenna that has some gain compared to a dipole, then you will have to reduce your transmitter power accordingly. If the antenna has a gain of 3 dBd (3 dB compared to a dipole) then you would have to reduce transmitter power by half (to 25 W PEP). The FCC requires you to keep a record of your antenna gain, if it is more than a dipole. This record can either be from the manufacturer’s data, from calculations of the gain or from gain measurements.
  42. G2D08 Why do many amateurs keep a log even though the FCC doesn't require it?
    A. The ITU requires a log of all international contacts
    B. The ITU requires a log of all international third party traffic
    C. The log provides evidence of operation needed to renew a license without retest
    D. To help with a reply if the FCC requests information
    • (D)
    • While useful, the FCC does not require you to keep a record (log) of your transmissions. It can be fun to keep a log, though, and then look back years later at the contacts you made. A log can also help document when your station was on the air and who was the control operator. You must give permission before a visiting amateur may operate your station. If you designate another amateur to be the control operator of your station, you both share the responsibility for the proper operation of the station. Unless your station records (log) show otherwise, the FCC will assume you were the control operator any time your station was operated as stated in FCC rule 97.103(b).
  43. G2D09 What information is traditionally contained in a station log?
    A. Date and time of contact
    B. Band and/or frequency of the contact
    C. Call sign
    of station contacted and the signal report given
    D. All of these choices are correct
    • (D)
    • You can keep any information in your log that you would like to remember later. At a minimum, most amateurs keep a record of the date and time of each contact as well as the frequency or band of the contact. The station call sign, mode, and the RST signal report given and received are also normally recorded. Many amateurs also record the name of the other operator as well as his or her location.
  44. G2D10 What is QRP operation?
    A. Remote piloted model control
    B. Low power transmit operation
    C. Transmission using Quick Response Protocol
    D. Traffic relay procedure net operation
    • (B)
    • QRP is a Q signal that means “lower your transmitter power.” Many amateurs enjoy using low power levels for the challenge, the relative simplicity of the equipment, and sometimes to reduce interference. The generally accepted level for “QRP” power is 5 watts of transmitter output on CW and 10 W PEP output on phone.
  45. G2D11 Which HF antenna would be the best to use for minimizing interference?
    A. A quarter-wave vertical antenna
    B. An isotropic antenna
    C. A unidirectional antenna
    D. An omnidirectional antenna
    • (C)
    • Most of the time we think about using a beam antenna to send more of our transmitted power toward the desired station. A beam antenna can also be an effective tool for fighting received interference. For example, you might be having a conversation with another amateur but a strong signal from another station on a nearby frequency is causing a bit of interference. With a beam antenna you might be able to turn the antenna so the interfering station is off the side or back of your antenna. In that case the antenna will not receive as strong a signal from the interfering station. Ideally, you would have an antenna that sends and receives signals in only one direction, rejecting signals in all other directions. This is called a unidirectional antenna. Most Yagi antennas send and receive some signal off the back and sides of the antenna but it is significantly less than the amount that is sent and received from the front.
  46. G2E01 Which mode is normally used when sending an RTTY signal via AFSK with an SSB transmitter?
    A. USB
    B. DSB
    C. CW
    D. LSB
    • (D)
    • Lower sideband (LSB) is used by convention for RTTY signals on all bands. There is no technical reason why LSB is preferred over USB for RTTY signals.
  47. G2E02 How many data bits are sent in a single PSK31 character?
    A. The number varies
    B. 5
    C. 7
    D. 8
    • (A)
    • One of the interesting properties of the PSK31 radioteletype mode is that it uses a character code called Varicode. Developed by Peter Martinez, G3PLX, Varicode uses shorter character lengths for the more common characters and longer codes for less common characters. (Morse code also uses variable length characters.) Thus, the number of data bits per character depends on which character is being sent. This is quite different from other digital modes that use fixed-length codes. For example, all RTTY Baudot code characters have five data bits.
  48. G2E03 What part of a data packet contains the routing and handling information?
    A. Directory
    B. Preamble
    C. Header
    D. Footer
    • (C)
    • Packet radio gets its name from the concept of breaking the information to be transmitted into small pieces, called packets. Each packet can be transmitted and make its way through the network independently. The entire message is then reassembled at the receiving station. Each packet begins with a header that contains several sets (fields) of information about the packet. The address field of the header contains information about the station for which the message is intended, the sending station and possibly specific relay stations. A control field contains information about the type of data being sent. A frame number allows the receiving station reassemble the entire message in order. The data field of the packet contains the actual data being sent. After the data field there is a frame check sequence (FCS) or cyclic redundancy check (CRC) field that is used for error detection.
  49. G2E04 What segment of the 20 meter band is most often used for data transmissions?
    A. 14.000 - 14.050 MHz
    B. 14.070 - 14.100 MHz
    C. 14.150 - 14.225 MHz
    D. 14.275 - 14.350 MHz
    • (B)
    • The FCC’s rules specify where RTTY and data transmissions allowed, but the band plans tell you where such signals are usually found. The band plan in Table G2E04 calls for RTTY and data operation from 14.070 to 14.100 MHz on 20 meters.
  50. G2E05 Which of the following describes Baudot code?
    A. A 7-bit code with start, stop and parity bits
    B. A code using error detection and correction
    C. A 5-bit code with additional start and stop bits
    D. A code using SELCAL and LISTEN
    • (C)
    • The Baudot code used for radioteletype (RTTY) has five data bits per character. This means there are only 32 possible character combinations. The code only transmits upper case letters. “LTRS” and “FIGS” characters select the alphabet table or a numbers and punctuation table to provide additional characters. RTTY is an asynchronous communications mode, so each character must also include a start and a stop bit.
  51. G2E06 What is the most common frequency shift for RTTY emissions in the amateur HF bands?
    A. 85 Hz
    B. 170 Hz
    C. 425 Hz
    D. 850 Hz
    • (B)
    • RTTY operation on the HF bands uses frequency-shift keying (FSK) to convey the information. The transmitted signal shifts between two frequencies, called the MARK and SPACE frequencies. The two frequencies used are normally 170 Hz apart for HF communications.
  52. G2E07 What does the abbreviation "RTTY" stand for?
    A. Returning to you
    B. Radioteletype
    C. A general call to all digital stations
    D. Repeater transmission type
    • (B)
    • RTTY stands for radioteletype. The FCC’s name for RTTY emissions is narrow-band, direct printing telegraphy.
  53. G2E08 What segment of the 80 meter band is most commonly used for data transmissions?
    A. 3570 – 3600 kHz
    B. 3500 – 3525 kHz
    C. 3700 – 3750 kHz
    D. 3775 – 3825 kHz
    • (A)
    • The FCC’s rules specify where RTTY and data transmissions allowed, but the band plans tell you where such signals are usually found. Table G2E04 gives the band plan calls for RTTY operation as from 3570 to 3600 kHz on 80 meters.
  54. G2E09 In what segment of the 20 meter band are most PSK31 operations commonly found?
    A. At the bottom of the slow-scan TV segment, near 14.230 MHz
    B. At the top of the SSB phone segment near 14.325 MHz
    C. In the middle of the CW segment, near 14.100 MHz
    D. Below the RTTY segment, near 14.070 MHz
    • (D)
    • PSK signals are generally found in the vicinity of 14.070 MHz on the 20 meter band at the bottom of the RTTY area listed in Table G2E04.
  55. G2E10 What is a major advantage of MFSK16 compared to other digital modes?
    A. It is much higher speed than RTTY
    B. It is much narrower bandwidth than most digital modes
    C. It has built-in error correction
    D. It offers good performance in weak signal environments without error correction
    • (D)
    • MFSK16 stands for Multi-Frequency Shift Keying with 16 different tones being transmitted. On the air, an MFSK16 signals sounds like a set of whistles all being played simultaneously in a narrow bandwidth. By carefully shaping the signal and controlling how the tones are turned on and off, MFSK16 modulation is able to better withstand the fading and distortion associated with sky-wave signals.
  56. G2E11 What does the abbreviation "MFSK" stand for?
    A. Manual Frequency Shift Keying
    B. Multi (or Multiple) Frequency Shift Keying
    C. Manual Frequency Sideband Keying
    D. Multi (or Multiple) Frequency Sideband Keying
    • (B)
    • MFSK16 stands for Multi-Frequency Shift Keying with 16 different tones being transmitted. On the air, an MFSK16 signals sounds like a set of whistles all being played simultaneously in a narrow bandwidth. By carefully shaping the signal and controlling how the tones are turned on and off, MFSK16 modulation is able to better withstand the fading and distortion associated with sky-wave signals.
  57. G2E12  How does the receiving station respond to an ARQ data mode packet containing errors?
    A. Terminates the contact
    B. Requests the packet be retransmitted
    C. Sends the packet back to the transmitting station
    D. Requests a change in transmitting protocol
    • (B)
    • ARQ stands for Automatic Repeat Request. In an ARQ digital mode, if a transmitted packet is received with errors, the receiving station may request a re-transmission of the packet automatically.
  58. G2E13 In the PACTOR protocol, what is meant by an NAK response to a transmitted packet?
    A. The receiver is requesting the packet be re-transmitted
    B. The receiver is reporting the packet was received without error
    C. The receiver is busy decoding the packet
    D. The entire file has been received correctly
    • (A)
    • PACTOR is an ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) digital mode in which the receiving station sends a response to the transmitting station indicating whether the data was received correctly or not. An ACK (Acknowledge) response means the data was received correctly. A NAK (Not Acknowledge) response means that errors were detected in the received data.

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