Exam 2 Anatomy

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Exam 2 Anatomy
2013-06-26 21:06:03

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  1. Basic Tissues
    • Epithelial tissue
    • Connective tissue
    • Nervous tissue
    • Muscle tissue
  2. Epithelial tissue
    • covers body surfaces
    • lines hollow organs, body cavities, and ducts
    • forms glands
  3. Forms of Epithelial tissue
    • Covering and lining epithelium- forms the outer layer of the skin; dips into and lines the open cavities of the urogenital, digestive, and respiratory systems; and covers the walls and organs of the closed ventral body cavity
    • Glandular epithelium- fashions the glands of the body
  4. Functions of Epithelial tissue
    • 1. protection
    • 2. lubrication
    • 3. filtration
    • 4. secretion
    • 5. digestion
    • 6. absorption
    • 7. transportation
    • 8. excretion
    • 9. sensory reception
    • 10. reproduction
  5. Characteristics of Epithelial tissue
    • 1. Polarity
    • 2. Specialized contacts
    • 3. Supported by connective tissues
    • 4. Avascular
    • 5. Regenerate
  6. Polarity
    • Apical surface (upper)
    • Basal surface (lower)
  7. Specialized Contacts
    fit closely together to form continuous sheets
  8. Supported by Connective tissue
    rest upon and are supported by
  9. Avascular
    • no blood supply
    • innervated (supplied by nerve vessels)
    • nourished by substances diffusing from blood vessels in underlying connective tissue
  10. Regenerate
    high mitotic rate
  11. Classification of Epithelium
    • 1. # of Layers
    • simple- 1 layer
    • stratified- several layers
    • 2. Shape
    • Squamous (flat, scale-like)
    • nucleus- flattened disc
    • Cuboidal (cube-like) nucleus-spherical
    • Columnar (rectangle) nucleus elongated/closer to the basement membrane
  12. Simple Squamous
    • function: allow the passage way of materials through diffusion and filtration and secrete lubricating substances into serosae
    • location: walls of air sacs of lungs, blood vessels, lining of the heart, lymphatic vessels, kidney glumeruli
  13. Endothelium
    • lines the heart and blood vessels
    • friction-reducing lining in lymphatic vessels
    • capillaries
  14. Mesothelium
    • serous membranes
    • lines the thoracic & abdominopelvic cavities
    • covers organs
  15. Simple Cuboidal
    • function: absorption and secretion
    • location: kidney tubules, ovary surface, ducts and secretory portions of small glands
  16. Simple Columnar
    • function: absorption, secretion of mucus, enzymes and other substances/ goblet cells propel mucus 
    • location: (non-ciliated) digestive tract, gallbladder, excretory ducts of some glands
    • (ciliated) small bronchi, uterine tubes, and some portions of the uterus, upper respiratory tract, some paranasal sinuses, and the central canal of the spinal cord 

  17. Pseudostratified (simple)
    • function: secretes substances particularly of mucus
    • location: (non-ciliated) male’s sperm-carrying ducts and ducts of large glands, part of the male urethra and auditory
    • (ciliated) lines the trachea, most of the upper respiratory tract
  18. Stratified Squamous
    • function: protection of underlying tissue subjected to abrasion
    • location: forms external part of skin and extends short distance into every body opening that is continuous with skin
    • (non-keratinized) lining of the esophagus, mouth, and vagina
    • (keratinized) epidermis of skin, dry membrane
  19. Stratified Cuboidal
    • function: protection
    • location: mammary glands, salivary glands, and largest ducts of sweat glands
  20. Stratified Columnar
    • function: protection and secretion
    • location: rare in the body; small amounts in male urethra, small amounts in the pharynx; liningof some glandular ducts, transition areas or junctions between two other types of epithelia
  21. Transitional Epithelium (stratified)
    • function: stretches readily, permits the distension of urinary organ contained by urine
    • location: urinary bladder, lines the ureters and part of the urethra
  22. Gland
    consists of one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product called a secretion that usually contains proteins there are other variations to this
  23. Glands Classification
    • (1) Where they release their product
    •       endocrine (internally)
    •       exocrine (externally)
    • (2) Relative cell number
    •       unicellular
    •       multicellular
  24. Endocrine Glands
    • ductless glands
    • that empty their hormonal (messenger chemicals)  products
    • directly into the blood or lymphatic fluid by exocytosis
  25. Exocrine Glands
    all secrete their products onto body surfaces (skin) or into body cavities
  26. Connective Tissue
    most abundant tissue in the body
  27. Classes of Connective tissue
    (1) Connective tissue Proper

    (2) Cartilage

    (3) Blood 

    (4) Bone
  28. Functions of Connective tissue
    • (1) Binding and supporting
    • (2) Protecting
    • (3) Insulating
    • (4) Storing reserve fuel
    • (5) Transporting substances within the body
  29. Characteristics of Connective tissue
    • (1) Common Origin-
    •         all arise from mesenchyme (embryonic tissue)  

    • (2) Highly Vascular 
    •        (except cartilage and tendons) 

    • (3) Extracellular Matrix 
    •        largely non-living
  30. Structural Elements of Connective Tissue
    • (1) Ground substance (2) Fibers --> make up the matrix
    • (3) Cells
  31. Fibers
    provide strength and support
  32. Types of Fibers
    • (1) Collagen fibers
    • (2) Elastic fibers
    • (3) Reticular fibers
  33. Collagen fibers
    • composed: protein collagen
    • purpose: very tough and resistant to stretching with some flexibility
    • location: bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments
  34. Elastic fibers
    • composed: protein elastin
    • purpose: provide strength and stretching capacity
    • location: skin, blood vessels, and lungs
  35. Reticular fibers
    • composed: collagen and glycoprotein
    • purpose: support in the walls of blood vessels and form a strong supporting network around fat cells, nerve fibers, skeletal and smooth muscle fibers
    • They help form the basement membranes and the framework (stroma) of many  soft organs
  36. Mature Connective Tissue
    • (1) Loose connective tissue
    • (2) Dense connective tissue
    • (3) Cartilage
    • (4) Bone
    • (5) Blood
  37. Messenchyme
    • tissue from which all other connective tissues eventually arise
    • location: almost exclusively in the embryo
  38. Loose connective tissue
    • (1) Areolar
    • (2) Adipose
    • (3) Reticular connective tissue
  39. Dense connective tissue
    • (1) dense Regular
    • (2) dense Irregular
    • (3) Elastic connective
  40. Cartilage
    • (1) Hyaline cartilage
    • (2) Fibrocartilage
    • (3) Elastic cartilage
  41. Loose Connective Tissue
    fibers are loosely woven and there are many cells
  42. Bone (osseous tissue)
    composed: matrix containing mineral salts and collagenous fibers and cells called osteocytes and surrounded by periosteum
  43. Areolar tissue (loose connective tissue)
    • composed: all 3 types of fibers, several types of cells, and semi-fluid ground substance
    • function: lending strength, elasticity, and support
    • location: subcutaneous layer and mucous membranes and around blood vessels, nerves, and body organs
  44. Adipose tissue (loose connective tissue)
    • composed: adipocytes
    • function: reduces heat loss, serves as energy reserve, supports, and protects organs
    • location: subcutaneous layer, around organs, and in the yellow marrow of long bones
  45. Reticular connective tissue (loose)
    • function: forms the stroma of organs and binds together smooth muscle tissue cells
    • location: liver, spleen, and lymph nodes
  46. Dense connective tissue
    more numerous and thicker fibers but considerably fewer cells than loose connective tissue
  47. Dense Regular (dense)
    • functions: strong attachments between various structures
    • forms: tendons, ligaments, and aponeuroses
    • tendons= muscle to bone
    • ligament= bone to bone
  48. Dense Irregular connective tissue (dense)
    • composed: randomly arranged collagenous fibers and a few fibroblasts
    • function: providing strength
    • location: dermis of skin, periosteum, perichondrium, joint capsules, membrane capsules around organs, and heart valves
  49. Elastic connective tissue (dense)
    • composed: elastic fibers and fibroblasts
    • function: stretching of various organs
    • location: lungs, walls of arteries, trachea, bronchial tubes, true vocal cords, and some ligaments
  50. Cartilage
    • avascular & no nerve supply (except in the perichondrium)
    • jellylike matrix (chondroitin sulfate) containing collagenous and elastic fibers and chondrocytes; it is surrounded by perichondrium
  51. Hyaline cartilage
    • function: supports and reinforces; resists compressive stress
    • location: covers the ends of long bones in joint cavities; forms costal cartilages of the ribs; cartilage of the nose, trachea, and larynx
  52. Fibrocartilage
    • composed: bundles of collagen in its matrix
    • functions: tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock and fusion
    • locations: intervertebral discs, discs of knee joint, pubic symphysis
  53. Elastic cartilage
    • composed: threadlike network of elastic fibers within the matrix
    • function: maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility
    • location: supports the external ear and epiglottis
  54. Bone (osseous tissue) (connective tissue)
    composed: supports, protects, helps provide movement, stores minerals, and houses blood-forming tissue
  55. Blood (connective tissue)
    • function:
    • prevention
    • regulation
    • transport
    • immunity
    • phagocytosis
    • clotting
  56. Serous Membranes or Serosa
    • (pleura, pericardium, peritoneum)
    • lines a body cavity that does not open directly to the exterior, and it covers the organs that lie within the cavity
  57. Muscle tissue
    • function: motion, maintenance of posture, and hear production
    • (1) Skeletal muscle
    • (2) Cardiac muscle
    • (3) Smooth muscle
  58. Skeletal muscle
    • attached to bones
    • striated
    • voluntary
  59. Cardiac muscle
    • forms most of the heart wall
    • pumps blood to all parts of the body
    • striated
    • involuntary
  60. Smooth muscle
    • walls of hollow internal structures (blood vessels and viscera)
    • motion (blood vessels and airways)
    • nonstriated
    • involuntary
  61. Nervous Tissue
    • (1) neurons
    • (2) neuroglia (protective and supporting cells)
  62. Neurons composition
    • (1) dendrites
    • (2) axons