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Fluctuation of the value of a statistic from one sample from a population to another sample.
Sampling error

Theoretical distribution of a statistic using an infinite number of samples as a basis and the values of the statistic used in the distribution.
Sampling distribution

Theoretical distribution of an infinite number of means of samples.
Sampling distribution of the mean

Standard deviation of the infinite number of means in the sampling distribution of the mean.
Standard error of the mean

Statistical estimation using information from a sample to estimate a single statistic to represent a population parameter.
Point estimation

Range of values within which a population parameter is estimated to lie.
Confidence interval

Hypothesis that states there is no relationship between the variables of interest.
Null hypothesis

Hypothesis that states there is a relationship between variables of interest.
Alternate hypothesis

Error created when rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually true.
Type I error

Error created when accepting the null hypothesis when it is actually false.
Type II error

Level designating the established risk of committing a type I error.
Alpha level

The probability of committing a type II error.
Beta

The probability of correctly rejecting a false null hypothesis.
Power

Statistical tests that involve assumptions about variable distribution, estimation of a parameter, and use of scale measures.
Parametric tests

Class of inferential statistics that do not make assumptions about variable distribution.
Nonparametric tests

Test of statistical significance in which only values at one extreme of a distribution are considered in determining significance.
Onetailed test

Test of statistical significance in which values at both extremes of a
distribution are considered in determining significance.
Twotailed test

Area of the sampling distribution representing values which are “improbable” if the null hypothesis is true.
Critical region

Concept representing the number of things free to vary about a parameter. A way to take sample size into consideration.
Degrees of freedom

Test to evaluate the probability that the value of the sample mean equals that of population mean.
Onesample ttest

Standard deviation of the difference between sample distribution means and that of the population mean.
Standard error of the difference

Test to determine the probability that the means of two groups are equal, when the groups are independent of each other.
Independent groups ttest

Test to determine the probability that paired means are equal; two
groups/measurements are tested to determine if they differ.
Paired ttest

Index of the magnitude and direction of the relationship between a continuous variable and a dichotomous variable.
Point biserial correlation

Procedure for testing mean differences among three or more groups by comparing the variability between groups with that within the groups.
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

Variability arising from group differences in ANOVA.
Betweengroup variance

Variability arising between subjects in groups in ANOVA.
Withingroup variance

Statistic in which variation attributable to different sources (e.g., between and within groups) is compared.
F ratio

Sum of squared deviation scores.
Sum of squares

Analysis of variance used to test the relationship between one independent variable and a dependent variable.
Oneway ANOVA

Analysis of variance used to test the relationship between two or more independent variables and a dependent variable simultaneously.
Multifactorial ANOVA

Procedure for testing mean differences in a withinsubject design with three or more conditions/observation periods.
Repeated measures ANOVA

Test for comparing all possible pairs of groups following a significant result of overall group differences (e.g., a significant ANOVA result).
post hoc test