Med Terms 10

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Med Terms 10
2013-07-02 17:12:53
medical terminology musculoskeletal

Lesson 10
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  1. How many bones does the musculoskeletal system have?
    206 bones, divided into the AXIAL & APPENDICULAR skeleton
  2. How many muscles does the body have?
    More than 600
  3. Paraplegia
    Paralysis of the lower body & both legs from spinal cord disease or injury
  4. Quadraplegia
    Paralysis of the arms & legs
  5. Skull/Cranium is formed from...
    • Occipital Bone
    • Frontal bone
    • 2 Parietal Bones
    • 2 Temporal Bones
    • 2 Sphenoid Bones
  6. Facial Bones
    • 2 Maxillary Bones
    • 2 Zygomatic Bones
    • 2 Nasal Bones
    • Mandible (lower jaw)
    • Two Lacrimal Bones (inner corner of each eye)
    • Vomer (single flat bone that forms the lower portion of the nasal septum- tip of nose)
  7. Spinal Column
    • 24 Vertebrae 
    • 7 Cervical
    • 12 Thoracic
    • 5 Lumbar
    • Sacrum (5 fused vertebrae attached to pelvis)
    • Coccyx (tailbone: 4 fused vertebrae at the lower end of the spine)
  8. Sternum
    Flat sword shaped bone in center of chest attached to clavicles
  9. Clavicles
    Collar Bones
  10. Scapulae
    Shoulder Blades
  11. Ribs
    Flat curved bones attached to thoracic portion of spinal column
  12. Costal
  13. True Ribs
    7 ribs attached to sternum by costal cartilage
  14. False Ribs
    5 ribs that are not attached to the sternum directly
  15. Hip Bone
    • Composed of 3 fused bones on each side
    • ISCHIUM- Posterior lower section of the pelvic bone
    • ILIUM- Upper section of the pelvic bone
    • PUBIS- Anterior lower section of pelvic bone; pubic bone
  16. Humerus
    Bone of the upper arm
  17. Radius
    The outer of 2 bones of the lower arm
  18. Ulna
    The more inner of 2 bones of the lower arm
  19. Carpal Bones
    The 8 bones of the wrist
  20. Metacarpal Bones
    The 5 bones of the palm of the hand
  21. Phalanges
    The bones of the fingers & toes; 14 in each hand or foot
  22. Femur
    Bone of the upper leg
  23. Patella
  24. Tibia
    Large inner bone of the lower leg
  25. Fibula
    Smaller, outer bone of the lower leg
  26. Tarsal Bones
    The 7 bones of the ankle
  27. Metatarsal Bones
    The 5 bones of the foot
  28. Calcaneus
    Bone of the heel
  29. Epiphysis
    The wider ends of a long bone
  30. Diaphysis
    The shaft (middle region) of a long bone
  31. Metaphysis
    The flared section of a long bone between the diaphysis & epiphysis
  32. Articular cartilage
    Tissue that caps one bone that comes in contact with another one
  33. Compact bone
    • Harder, denser bone
    • Located around the diaphysis of long bones
    • Provides oxygen & nutrients & removes wastes
  34. Cancellous bone, Spongy bone
    • Meshlike bone tissue
    • Porous, less dense than compact bone
    • Contain red bone marrow
  35. Endostem
    Membrane within medullary cavity
  36. Bones of the fetus of made up of...
    • Cartilaginous tissue
    • Throughout the gestational process, OSSIFICATION takes place
    • Cartilaginous tissue is replaced by immature bone cells & calcium deposits
  37. Bone composition
    • Composed  of collagen, blood vessels, intercellular calcium salts,
    • nerves and living cells

    • •Osteoblasts
    • (cells that help form bone)

    • •Osteoclasts
    • (cells that help eat away old one)

    • •Osteocytes
    • (mature osteoblasts that no longer help form bone; engage in metabolic exchange
    • with the blood that flows through the bones)
  38. Bones
    Calcium and phosphorus are necessary for the formation of bone

    ◦Forms calcium phosphate, which gives bones their hard quality

    • Vitamin D is
    • necessary to help calcium pass through the lining of the small intestine to the
    • bloodstream

    ◦Sources of vitamin D are Food & Sun

    ◦Deficiency of vitamin D results in Development of soft, thin, and brittle bones and Rickets in children, Osteomalacia in adults
  39. Growth Plate
    Area of cartilage that is constantly being replaced by new bone tissue as the bone grows; the plate calcifies and disappears when bone growth stops
  40. Ankyl/o
  41. Arthr/o, Articul/o
  42. Burs/o
  43. Carp/o
    Wrist bones
  44. Chondr/o
  45. Cervic/o
  46. Clavicul/o
  47. Cost/o
  48. Crani/o
  49. Fasci/o
  50. Femor/o
  51. Fibul/o
  52. Humer/o
  53. Ili/o
  54. Ischi/o
  55. Lamin/o
  56. Lumb/o
    Lower back
  57. Mandibul/o
  58. Maxill/o
  59. My/o, Myos/o
  60. Orth/o
  61. Oste/o
  62. Orth/o
  63. Patell/o, Patell/a
  64. Pelv/i, Pelv/o
    Pelvis, Hip region
  65. Phalang/o
  66. Pub/o
  67. Rachi/o
    Spinal column, vertebrae
  68. Radi/o
    X-rays, radioactivity
  69. Rhabdomy/o
    Striated muscle
  70. Rheumat/o
    Watery flow
  71. Sacr/o
  72. Scapul/o
    Scapula, shoulder blade
  73. Stern/o
  74. Synov/o
    Synovial membrane, synovia
  75. Tars/o
    Hindfoot or Ankle
  76. Ten/o, Tendin/o
  77. Thorac/o
  78. Ton/o
  79. Uln/o
  80. Vertebr/o, Spondyl/o
  81. Kyphosis
    Humpback; posterior (outward) curvature of the thoracic spine, results in forward rounding of upper back
  82. Lordosis
    Swayback; anterior (inward) curvature of the lumbar spine
  83. Scolosis
    Crooked, bent or sideway (lateral) curvature of the spine
  84. -asthenia
    Lack of strength
  85. -clasis, -clast
    To break
  86. -desis
    Bind, tie together
  87. -listhesis
  88. -malacia
  89. -physis
    To grow
  90. -porosis
    Condition of pores
  91. -stenosis
    Tightening, stricture
  92. -tome
    Instrument to cut
  93. Costovertebral
    Pertaining to the ribs & thoracic vertebrae
  94. Iliofemoral
    Pertaining to the ilium and femur
  95. Intercostal
    Pertaining to the area between the ribs
  96. Intervertebral
    Pertaining to the area between vertebrae
  97. Intracranial
    Pertaining to the area within the skull
  98. Ischiofemoral
    Pertaining to the ischium and femur
  99. Lumbocostal
    Pertaining to the lumbar vertebrae and ribs
  100. Lumbosacral
    Pertaining to the lumbar vertebrae and sacrum
  101. Osseous
    Pertaining to the bone
  102. Sacrovertebral
    Pertaining to the sacrum and the vertebrae above
  103. Sternoclavicular
    Pertaining to the sternum and clavicle
  104. Submandibular
    Pertaining to the area below the mandible
  105. Submaxillary
    Pertaining to the area below the maxilla
  106. Subscapular
    Pertaining to the area below the scapula
  107. Substernal
    Pertaining to the area below the sternum
  108. Suprapatellar
    Pertaining to the area above the patella
  109. Suprascapular
    Pertaining to the area above the scapula
  110. Synovial
    Pertaining to, containing, or consisting of synovial fluid
  111. Tumors
    • Ewing sarcoma
    • Osteogenic sarcoma
    Cancer that starts in the bone; arises from Osteoblasts, often starts in the ends of the bones where new bone tissue forms

    Usually develops during the period of rapid growth during adolescent years (15), most common malignant bone tumor in youth

    ◦Similar incidence in boys and girls until late adolescence - boys are more commonly affected

    Cause unknown
  113. Osteomalacia
    Primarily occurs in infancy and childhood as Rickets

    ◦Inadequate amounts of calcium and phosphorus in the bone; diet deficient in Vitamin D

    ◦Vitamin D controls the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from foods and how much is taken from or added into bones

    ◦Bones are soft, bend easily, become deformed
  114. Osteoporosis
    Age-related disorder of decreased bone mass and weakening

    • ◦Common in older women- Due to
    • decreased amounts of estrogen

    • INCREASED osteoclast activity, DECREASED osteoblast activity
    • Can occur due to atropy- bedridden, limb in a  cast, legs of a person with paralysis
    • Fractures, loss of height, Kyposis
  115. Bone Fractures
    • Traumatic breaking of the bone
    • Closed- Bone breaks; no open wound in skin

    Open- Bone breaks; protrudes through open wound in skin
  116. Colles
    Break occurs near wrist joint at distal end of radius
  117. Comminuted
    Bone is crushed or splintered into pieces
  118. Greenstick
    Bone is partially broken; breaks on one side; bends on the other
  119. Compression
    Bone collapses or is compressed

    Osteoporosis; injury
  120. Impacted fracture
    One fragment of bone is driven into another
  121. Osteogenesis Imperfecta
    • Known as brittle bone disease
    • Fractures occur with minimal trauma & occur throughout life, several types
  122. Talipes
    Congenital abnormality of hindfoot

  123. Polydactyly
    Extra digit
  124. Joints
    • Joint articulation is where 2 or more bones come together, which can be:
    • Freely Movable: synovial joints (i.e. ball and socket joints in hip and shoulder, hinge joints in elbow, knee and ankle)
    • Partially Movable: Bones between vertebrae
    • Immovable: Suture joints between skull bones
  125. Synovial Joint
    Bones are surrounded by joint capsule and covered by articular cartilage

    Ligaments (thickened bands of connective tissue) anchor one bone to another

    • Synovial membrane is located under the joint capsule and lines the synovial cavity between bones & is filled with
    • synovial fluid, which lubricates and nourishes bone, and reduces friction on the articular cartilage
  126. The knee is a synovial joint
    Bursa (pl. bursae)

    Sac of fluid near a joint; promotes smooth sliding of one tissue against another, which can be found at the elbow joint, knee joint and shoulder joint
  127. Intervertebral disc
    Platelike structure of connective tissue between vertebrae
  128. Meniscus
    Cartilage structure in the knee
  129. Tendon
    Band of fibrous connective tissue attaching a muscle to bone
  130. Abduction
    Moving away from the midline
  131. Adduction
    Moving toward the midline
  132. Inversion
    Turning inward
  133. Eversion
    Turning outward
  134. Dorsiflexion
    Bending foot upward
  135. Plantar flexion
    Bending foot downward
  136. Extension
    Motion that increases the joint angle
  137. Flexion
    Motion that decreases the joint angle
  138. Pronation
    Turning downward (palm or sole)
  139. Supination
    Turning upward (palm or sole)
  140. Circumduction
    Moving in a circular manner
  141. Rotation
    Moving in circular direction around an axis
  142. Ankylosing Spondylitis
    • Chronic, progressive stiffening of joints
    • Primarily in the spine
  143. Gout
    • Excessive uric acid in the body due to congenital defect
    • Uric acid accumulates in blood (hyperuricemia), joints, soft tissue near joints

    ◦Points on the uric acid crystals destroy articular cartilage and damage synovial membrane

    ◦Can result in severe pain, Big toe is primarily affected (Podagra)
  144. Osteoarthritis
    Progressive, degenerative joint disease- Narrowing of joint space due to loss of cartilage

    ◦Occurs mainly in hips and knees of older people

    ◦End stage of osteoarthritis is most common reason for joint replacement surgery
  145. Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Autoimmune reaction against joint tissue (especially the synovial membrane)

    Small joints are affected first, followed by larger joints

    Women have a higher incidence than men, Diagnosed by presence of ‘rheumatoid factor’ in blood
  146. Bunion
    Caused by irritation from shoes that do not fit right, enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the base of the big toe
  147. Arthralgia
    Pain in a joint
  148. Arthitis
    Inflammation of a joint
  149. Bursitis
    Inflammation of a fluid filled sac within the joint
  150. Chondralgia
    Inflammation of the cartilage
  151. Chondritis
    Inflammation of the cartilage
  152. Ostealgia
    Bone pain
  153. Osteitis
    Inflammation of a bone
  154. Osteolysis
    Degeneration of a bone from calcium loss
  155. Osteopenia
    Reduced bone mass
  156. Osteoporosis
    Reduction in bone mass that interferes with the mechanical support structure of bone and fractures
  157. Arthrochondritis
    Inflammation of an articular cartilage
  158. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
    Nerve entrapment syndrome in the wrist, causing pain
  159. Herniated Disc
    Protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk
  160. Smooth Muscle
    Unstriated muscle- type of muscle NOT under voluntary control; present in internal organs
  161. Skeletal Muscle
    Striated muscle- type of muscle under voluntary control ("striated" refers to light and dark bands in the muscle fibers)
  162. Cardiac Muscle
    Heart muscle- Striated, but like smooth muscle in its action
  163. Muscular Dystrophy
    Inherited diseases, progressive weakness & degeneration of muscle fibers

    Nervous system NOT involved
  164. Polymyositis
    • Chronic inflammatory myopathy, symmetrical muscle weakness, pain 
    • May have rash around the eyes, on face & limbs
    • May have autoimmune component
  165. Arthrocentesis
    Surgical puncture to remove synovial fluid from joint space for analysis
  166. Arthrography
    X-ray imaging of a joint using a contrast agent
  167. Arthroplasty
    Surgical repair of the joint
  168. Arthroscopy
    Endoscopic examination of the interior of a joint
  169. Bone Densitometry
    X-ray technique for determining density of bone
  170. Bone Scan
    Nuclear medicine imaging of bone to diagnose bone disorders
  171. Computed Tomography (CT)
    X-ray technique producing computer-generated cross-sectional images; used to evaluate disorders of and injuries to the musculoskeletal system
  172. Electromyogram (EMG)
    Diagnostic test producing graphic record of electric currents associated with muscular action
  173. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    Imaging technique that uses magnetic fields and radiofrequency waves to visualize anatomic structures; often used for diagnosing joint disorders
  174. Radiography
    Examination of any part of the body by x-ray
  175. Range of Motion (ROM) testing
    Measurement of the amount of movement allowed in a joint
  176. Cranioplasty
    Surgical repair of the skull
  177. Craniotomy
    Surgical creation of an opening (incision) into the skull
  178. Meniscectomy
    Excision of a meniscus, usually from the knee joint
  179. Tenorrhaphy
    Suture of the divided ends of a tendon
  180. Chiropractic
    Healthcare discipline involving physical manipulation of musculoskeletal structures
  181. Orthopedics
    Medical specialty focusing on diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the musculoskeletal system
  182. Orthotist
    One who makes and fits orthopedic appliances
  183. Osteopath
    Physician who specializes in osteopathy
  184. Podiatry
    Medical specialty focusing on diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the foot
  185. Rheumatology
    Medical specialty focusing on the study, diagnosis, and treatment of joint conditions