AT102

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itzlinds
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225019
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AT102
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2013-07-08 23:09:19
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AT102 chapters 10 wounds
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Chapters 10,wounds
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  1. neturophils and macrophasges line up along the cell wall:
    margination
  2. phagocytic cells:
    leukocytes
  3. passage of blood cells, via ameboid action, through the intact capillary wall; movement of white blood cells out fo small artreial vessels:
    diapedesis
  4. accumulation of fluid that penetrates throught vessel walls into and joining extravascular space:
    exudate
  5. a type of leukoctye:
    neutrophils
  6. phagocytic cells of the immune system:
    macrophages
  7. cells that are the primary means of providing the body with immune capabilities:
    lymphocytes
  8. cells that produce collagen and elastin:
    fibroblasts
  9. describe the process of clotting in specific stages:
    • a. frbrinogen ot fibrin due to the release of thromboplastin
    • b. prothrombin
    • c. throbin converset fibrinogen into fibrin clot
  10. decrease in diameter of a blood vessel:
    vasconstriction
  11. period of scar formation:
    fibroplasia
  12. a strong fibrous protein found in connective tissue:
    collagen
  13.  a molecule made of protein and carbohydrate:
    proteoglycans
  14. a carbohydrate that partially composes proteoglycans:
    glycosaminoglycans
  15. minor damage to soft tissues associtated with overuse:
    microtears
  16. significant distruction of soft tissue caused by acute trauma:
    macrotears
  17. NSAID's:
    nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs
  18. bone producing cells:
    osteoblasts
  19. cells that absorb bone:
    osteoclasts
  20. a portion of bone that degenerates due to a poor blood supply
    avascular necrosis
  21. small, hyperirritable areas within a muscle:
    trigger points
  22. pain receptors:
    nociceptors
  23. neutrophils, macrophages, and leukoctyes that ingest microorganisms, other cells, and foreign pparticles:
    phyagoctyes
  24. nerve fibers which transmit impules from the nociceptors towards the spinal cord:
    afferent nerves
  25. nerve fibers such as motor neurons, which transmit impulses from the spinal cord toward the periphery:
    efferent nerves
  26. list the cardnial signs of inflammation:
    • rubor (redness)
    • tumor (swelling)
    • color (heat)
    • dolor (pain)
    • functio laesa (loss of function)
  27. list the 3 phases of inflammatory response:
    • inflammatory response phase
    • fibroblasitc repair phase
    • maturation and remodeling phase
  28. list the characteristics of the inflammatory response phase:
    • inital reaction by leukocytes and phagocytic cells
    • goal: protect, localize, decrease injurious agents, prepare for healing and repair
  29. a chemical mediatior that is a primary vasodilator; changes cells permeablity to swelling:
    histamine
  30. leukotaxin and histamine increase the vessel wall _________________:
    permeability
  31. facilitates exudate formation; limits exudate:
    chemial mediators
  32. list the characteristics of phase 2 fibrogblatic repair in inflammatory response:
    • scar formation through 3 phases:
    • resolution (little tissue damage, normal restoration)
    • restroation (if resolution is delayed)
    • regeneration (replacement of tissue by same tissue)
  33. list the characterisitcs of phase 3 maturation and remodeling in inflammatory response:
    • realignment of collagen
    • contiuned breakdown, synthesis of collagen
  34. list some factors that impede healing:
    • extent of injury
    • edema
    • hemorrhage
    • poor vascualr supply
    • separation of tissue
    • muscle spasm
    • atrophy
    • corticosteroids
    • infection
    • humidity, climate, oxygen tension
    • health, age, nutrition
  35. before regeneration and repair can take place, what must occure:
    resolution
  36. list the 4 types of soft tissue found in the body:
    • epithelial tissue: skin, vessle, organ linings
    • connective tissue: tendons, ligaments, cartilage, fat, blood
    • muscle tissue: skeletal smooth, cardiac
    • nerve tissue: brain, spinal cord, nerves
  37. transformation of tissue from one type to another that is not normal for that tissue:
    metaplasia
  38. abnormal development of tissue:
    dysplasia
  39. excessive proliferation of normal cells in normal tissue arragngement:
    hyperplasia
  40. a decrease in the size of tissue due to cell death and reabsorption or decreased cell proliferation:
    atrophy
  41. an increase in the size of tissue without necessarily changing the number of cells:
    hypertorphy
  42. ligamentous tissue may take as long as ________ to become completely remodeled.
    12 months
  43. list the 5 stages of acute fractures in bone healing:
    • hematoma formation
    • cellular proliferation
    • callus formation
    • ossification
    • remodeling
  44. list and describe the 4 sources of pain:
    • cataneous: sharp, bright, and buring with fast and slow onset
    • deep somatic: orginates in tendons, muscles, joints, perisoteum, blood vessels
    • visceral: begins in organs, diffused at first, may become localized
    • physchogenic: emotional rather than physical
  45. list and describe the 3 types of referred pain:
    • myofascial: tigger points
    • sclerotomic: deep pain, aching, poorly localized
    • dermatomic: sharp, localized
  46. _______ pain is deep, achy, and poorly localized where as _____ pain is sharp and well localized:
    sclerotomic, dermatomic
  47. list and describe the steps of wound care:
    • all wounds assumed to be contaminated
    • clean the wound: work inside out, flush, remove debris
    • apply protective ointement: neosporin, bacitracin
    • cover for protection:
    • monintor for infection: red, swollen, pus, heat, pain, loss of function
  48. list the steps for blister care:
    • let it be for the first day
    • make a small incision
    • drain fluid
    • cleanse area
    • cover and protective padding
    • monitor for infection
  49. list the steps to care for a bruise:
    • provide RICE pricinples
    • apply protective padding
    • 48-72 hrs post, remove with massage or other modalitites
    • montior for infection
  50. list the steps for the care of abrasions:
    • remove debris of any large particles
    • cleanse with soap, water, ect.
    • apply ointment
    • cover
    • monitor for infection
  51. list the steps to care for laceration/incisions:
    • clease around the wound
    • avoid wiping contaminates into area
    • apply dry sterile compress
    • sutures done by physician
    • montior for infection
  52. list the steps to care for a skin avulsion:
    • clean around the wound
    • save avulsed tissue
    • refer for sutures if needed
    • change sterile dressing daily
    • monitor for infection
  53. list the steps to manage an ingrown toenail:
    • soak in warm water 20 mins
    • place cotton under edge of nail
  54. list the 5 C's of how MRSA can be spread:
    • crowding
    • skin to skin contact
    • compromised skin
    • contaminated items
    • lack cleanliness
  55. the application of mechanical forces which may stem from within or outside the body, to living organisms:
    biomechanics
  56. mechanical forces that are applied to a living organism and adversely change the body's structure and function; structural body devation, leading to faulty aligment:
    pathomechanics
  57. the cause of an injury or disease:
    etiology
  58. the mechanical desccription of the cause:`
    mechanism
  59. the structural and fucntional changes that result from teh injury process
    pathology
  60. a perceptible change in a patients body or its functions that indicate an injury or disease:
    symptom
  61. an objective , a definitive and obvious indicator of a spectific condition:
    sign
  62. denotes the name of a specific condition:
    diagnosis
  63. a prediction about the course of the condition; projected outcome of injury or illness:
    prognosis
  64. a condition following and resulting from a diesease or an injury:
    sequela
  65. a group of symptoms and signs that, together, indicate a particular injury or disease:
    syndrome
  66. HOPS
    History, Observation, palpation, special tests
  67. joint motin that occurs because of muscle contraction:
    active range of motion
  68. movement that is preformed completely by the examiner:
    passive range of motion
  69. an area of skin that is innervated by the sensory fibers of a single spinal nerve or crainal nerve:
    dematome
  70. muscle or groups of muscles innervated by a specific motor nerve
  71. in front of:
    anterior
  72. in back of:
    posterior
  73. above:
    superior
  74. below:
    inferior
  75. farther away:
    distal
  76. closer to:
    proximal
  77. toward the middle:
    medial
  78. away from the middle:
    lateral
  79. what are the 4 distinct evaluations:
    • pre- participation (prior to start of season)
    • on the field assessment
    • off the field assessment
    • progress evaluation
  80. what is the difference between evaluation and diagnosis:
    • diagnosis: used to establish the cuase, nature of illness or injury and subsequent fucntional impairment
    • evaluation: used to make clinical diganosis
  81. what are the 4 abdominopelivic quadrants:
    • right upper quadrant
    • left upper quadrant
    • right lower quadrant
    • left lower quadrant
  82. what are the 9 regions of the abdomen:
    • right hypochondriac
    • epigastric
    • left hypochondriac
    • right lateral abdominal
    • umbilical
    • left lateral abdominal
    • right inguinal
    • hypogastric
    • left inguinal
  83. grading for injury/condition:
    degree
  84. refers to a list of possible causes
    prioritiizing of possibilities
    hypothese or working diagonsis
     
    systematic method  of diagnosing a disorder:
    differential diagnosis
  85. obtain subjective info relative to how injury occured, extent of injury, MOI
    inaquire about previous injuires/illness that may be involved as well as past treatments

    ask:
    how and when did it occure
    did you hear or feel something
    which direction did the joint move
    characterize the pain
    History (HOPS)
  86. look for asymmetries, postural mal-alignments or deformities
    how does the athelete move? is there a limp?
    are movement abnormal?
    what is the body position?
    facial expressions
    abnormal sounds
    swelling, heat, redness, inflammation, discoloration:
    observation (HOPS)
  87. the use of touch to determine abnormalities in bony and soft tissue:
    palpation (HOPS)
  88. used to detect specific pathologies; compare inert and contractile tissues and their integrity
    assessment should be made bilaterally
    special tests (HOPS)
  89. Active

    Passive:
    normal vs. normal
    manual muscles tests
    goniometric measurement vs. digital inclinomenters
    range of motion assesment
  90. cerebral , crainal never fucntion, cerebellar funcion

    sensory and motor function: dermatome and myotome
    neurological and circulation assesments of the brain
  91. involuntary response to a stimulus

    deep tendon: caused by stimulation of strectch reflex
    superficial: stimulation of skin which casues relfexive muscle contraction
    pathological: superficial relfex indicative of upper motor neuron lesion (babinski's, caddocks, oppenheims)
    neuorolgoical and circulation assesments - reflex testing - special tests (HOPS)
  92. SOAP
    • subjective: statements made by patients, history
    • objective: AT evaluation
    • assessment: AT opinion of injury
    • Plan: first aid, treatment, referral, goals
  93. used to determine presence fo fracture bone abnormaliites and dislocations
    plain film radiographs (x rays)
  94. a visual study of join via x ray after injection of die or air or a combination of bother
    shows disruption of soft tissues and loose bodies
    arthrography
  95. invasive technique, using fiber optics to assess joint integrity and damage:
    arthroscopy
  96. opaque dye injected into epidural space of spinal canal
    used to detect tumors, nerve root compression, disk disease
    myelography
  97. penetrates the body with thin, fan-shaped x ray beam
    produces cross sectional view of tissues
    computed tomography (CT scan)
  98. allows clinincal to view location, measurement, and delineation of organ or tissue by measuring reflection or transmission of high freqence ultrasound waves:
    sonography
  99. graphic recording of muscle elecricla activity using surface or needle electrodes:
    electromyography
  100. special tests are commonly used to determine what in an evaulation?
    used to substantiate what has been learned from the history, observation and palpation portations of the evaulation process
  101. how would an evaluator palpate a painful joint:
    • starts with light pressure followed by gradually deeper pressure
    • beings away from the site of complaint and gradually moves towards it
  102. list 4 concerns that can be noted while observing an injury:
    • deformity
    • facila expression
    • asymmetries
    • postural mal alignment
  103. in obtaining a history, the examiner should do the following 3 things:
    • be calm and reassuring
    • ask open-ended questions
    • listen carefully to athlete
    • maintain eye contact
    • record exactly what athlete says
  104. what term denotes drawing a body part away from theh midline of the body:
    abduction
  105. what term denotes drawing a body part toward the midline of the body:
    adduction
  106. is the knee proximal or distal to the ankle?
    proximal
  107. is the shoulder medial or lateral to the sternum?
    lateral
  108. if a manual muscle test is graded GOOD, what does this tell us about the muscle strength?
    complete ROM against gravity with some resistance
  109. if an athlete feels pain in the left shoulder and donnw into the upper arm, what might this referred pain indicate:
    • heart
    • spleen
  110. what must be accomplished in a functional test before the athlete is cleared for participation:
    • regained full strength
    • full range of motion
    • speed
    • endurance
    • neuromuscular control
    • pain free
  111. what are some of the advantages of using arthroscopy:
    surgeon can preform surgical prodcedures, removing loose bodies, suturing torn tissues
  112. why would a physician want to do a bone scan rather than an x ray:
    it can dectect inflammation and stress fractures
  113. what are the movements of the spine:
    • flextion and extension
    • right and left lateral flextion
    • right and left rotation

    *minimal movement in thoraic region
  114. what are some prevention of injury to the cervial spine:
    • prior to impact brace by "bulling" the nect (isometeric contraction of neck and shoulders)
    • have full ROM thru stretching
  115. what is the difference between a cervical fracture and a cervical dislocation:
    • cervial fracture: an axial load with some degree of cervical flexion
    • neck point tenderness, restricted motion,  cervial muslce spasm, pain in chest and extremities, weakness in trunk or limbs
    • cervical dislocation: the result of a violent flexion and rotation of the head
    • considerable pain, numbess, weakness, or paralysis
  116. more violent turn of the head, forced flexion, extension or rotation (than a strain)
    a snapping of the head and neck, compromising the anterior/psoterior longitudinal legament
    tenderness over the ransvers and spinous processes
    cervical sprain (whiplash)
  117. pain on the side of the neck upon wakening
    result fo synoval capsule impingement within a facet
    acute torticollis (wryneck)
  118. mechanisms inclue lacerations, hemorrhage, contusion, neuropraxia and shock
    various degrees of paralyiss impacting motor and sensory function
    cord lesion at or above C3 will result in death, below C4 will allow for some nerve root function
    cervical cord and nerve root injuries
  119. syndrome cahracterized by a narrowing of the spinal canal in the cervical region that impinges on the spinal cord
    cervical spine stenosis
  120. results fromm stretching or compression of the brachial plexus; distrupts peripheral nerve function without degenerative changes
    brachial plexus neruapraxia
  121. result of wedge fractures of 5 degress or greater in 3 or more consectutive vertebrae with disk space abnormalities and irregular epiphyseal endplates:
    scheuermann's disease
  122. fractures of the spinous or transverse processes
    result of trunk hyperflexion or fallin from a height:
    lumbar vertebra fracture or dislocation
  123. sudden extension contraction overloadd generally in conjuncion with some type of rotation:
    low back muscle strain
  124. inflammatory condition of the sciatic nerve
    nerve root compression from intervertebral disk protrusion,structural irregularities with the intervertebral foramina:
    sciatica
  125. degeneration of the vertebrae due to congential weakenss (stress fracture results); breaking down of vertebra:
    spondylolysis
  126. slipping of one vertebrae above or below another
    spondylolisthesis
  127. pelvic asymmetries, measureable leg length deormitites, blocked normal movement during trunk flexion:
    sacroiliac sprain
  128. how many indivuidual bones are there in the spine:
    32
  129. how many bones of the spine are considered true or false bones:
    • true: 24
    • false: 9
  130. what is the main function of the intervertebral disk:
    important shock absorbers for the spine
  131. list 3 things of major importance that an AT should be testing for in the examination and evaluation of a low back condition:
    • pelvis and shoulders should be level
    • soft tissues, and bony structures on both sides of the midline should be symmetrical
    • unusual curves
  132. kernigs test:
    passively extending the knee eliciting pain in the hamstrings... back pain may be sign of nerve root irritation
  133. what are the mechanisms for serious neck injuries:
    • axial load
    • flexion
    • hyperextension
    • rotaion and flexion
    • rotation and hyperextension
    • lateral flexion
  134. neuropraxia:
    the patient is unable to move body parts, complains of numbness and tingling in the arms, after a short while signs leave
  135. portion of vertebrae protecting the spinal cord:
    neural arch
  136. birth defect involving imcomplete formation of the neural arch:
    spina bifida occulta
  137. ellastic connective tissue connecting the laminae of adjacent vertebrae:
    legamentum flava
  138. pain in the coccyx and surrounding region:
    coccygodynia
  139. straight leg raises caused by pain by stretching the sciatic nerve:
    lesegue's sign
  140. ankle is a _________ hinge joint
    medial and lateral displacement is prevented by the ________
    square shape of the _____ adds to stablility of the ankle
    most stable during _______, and least stable during ___________
    • stable
    • malleoli
    • talus
    • dorsiflexion
    • plantar flexion
  141. a test is a blow to the tibia, fibula or heel to crete vibratory force that resonates within a fracture:
    percussion test
  142. test involves compression of tibia and fibula either above or below site of concern
    compression test
  143. squeeze calf muscle, while foot is exteneded off table to test the integrity of the achilles tendon; postivie test results in no movement
    thompson test
  144. used to determin damage to anterior talofibular ligament primarily and other lateral ligament secondarily; positive test results in foot slides foward, make clunking sound at end point:
    anterior drawer test
  145. contain muscles that dorsiflex the ankel and extend the toes: tibialis anterior, extensor hallcuis longus, and extensor digitorum longus
    anterior compartment
  146. contains the peroneus longus and brevis, which evert the ankle; peroneus tertius mucle which assists in dorsiflexion
    lateral compartment
  147. contains the gatrocnemius msucle and the soleus muscle:
    superfical posterior compartment
  148. contains the tibilais posterior, flexor digitorum longus and flexor hallucis longus muscles, which invert the ankle:
    deep posterior compartment
  149. how would you manage an acute achilles tendon strain:
    • apply pressure with an elastic wrap with the application of cold
    • RICE for an extended peroid of time
  150. What serious complication can occur in a lower leg fracture when hemorrhage and swelling are present?
    volkmann's contracture
  151. an articulation in which the bones are united by a ligament:
    syndersmotic joint
  152. talocrural joint formed by the tibia, fibia, and talus:
    ankle mortise
  153. both the medial malleolus of the distal tibia and the lateral malleolus of the distal
    fibula are fractured.
    bimalleolar fracture
  154. an inflammatory condition that involves the tendon sheath
    tenosynovitis
  155. a serious condition that results in the destruction and deterioration of bone
    osteomyelitis
  156. What is the mechanism of injury in peroneal tendon subluxation?
    a direct blow to the posterior lateral malleolus
  157. How might you relieve a tonic muscle spasm?
    • firm grasp on contracted muscle
    • gradual stretching
    • ice pack or ice massage
  158. Name two causes of chronic medial shin pain.
    • repetitive microtrauma
    • mallignment problmes

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