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Acanthocyte (spur cell)
Liver disease, abetalipoproteinemia (states of cholesterol dysregulation)
Thalassemia, Anemia of chronic disease, Iron deficiency, Lead poisoning
(basophilic stippling represents accumulation of rRNA, e.g. lead denatures ribonuclease)
Oxidative stress causes Hgb to aggregate and form Heinz bodies --> macrophage tries to "bite" this out resulting in bite cell
Megaloblastic anemia (also hypersegmented PMNs), marrow failure
Sideroblastic anemia. Excess iron in mitochondria = pathogenic
Schistocyte, helmet cell
DIC, TTP/HUS, traumatic hemolysis (i.e. metal heart valve prosthesis)
Sickle cell anemia
Hereditary spherocytosis, autoimmune hemolysis
Bone marrow infiltration (e.g. myelofibrosis)
HbC disease, Asplenia, Liver disease, Thalassemia
"HALT" said hunter to his target
Oxidation of Hbg sulfhydryl groups leads to denatured hemoglobin precipitation and damage to RBC membrane --> formation of bite cells
Seen in G6PD deficiency; Heinz body - like inclusions seen in α-thalassemia.
- Basophilic nuclear remnants found in RBCs.
- Howell-Jolly bodies are normally removed from RBCs by splenic macrophages.
Seen in pts w/ functional hyposplenia or asplenia, or after mothball ingestion (napthalene).