Med Terms 11

The flashcards below were created by user liana_george on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Nervous System (NS)
    • Carry impulses btw brain, neck, head, and spinal nerves
    • Release chemicals called neurotransmitters
    • Control voluntary and involuntary body functions
    • Two major divisions of NS: Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
  2. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    Brain and spinal cord
  3. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    Cranial nerves, spinal nerves, plexuses, and peripheral nerves
  4. Cerebrum
    Largest & Uppermost portion of the brain, divided into right and left halves (Cerebral Hemispheres) and subdivided into lobes
  5. Cerebral cortex
    • Outer layer of the cerebrum
    • Controls higher mental functions
  6. Gyrus
    Raised Convolution on the surface of the cerebrum
  7. Sulcus
    Groove or Fissure on the surface of the brain
  8. Frontal Lobe
    Front portion of the cerebrum that controls voluntary muscle movement and is involved in emotions
  9. Occipital Lobe
    Back portion of the cerebrum that controls vision
  10. Parietal Lobe
    Middle-top portion of the cerebrum involved in perception of touch, temperature, and pain
  11. Temporal Lobe
    • Portion of the cerebrum below the frontal lobe
    • Controls senses of hearing and smell as well as memory, emotion, speech, and behavior
  12. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
    • Ventricles containing CSF are located in the middle of the cerebrum
    • CSF cushions and protects the brain and spinal cord from shock by acting like a cushion
  13. Cerebellum (Hindbrain)
    • Posterior portion of the brain that coordinates the voluntary muscles
    • Maintains balance and posture
  14. Mesencephalon (Midbrain)
    • Part of the brainstem that connects the brainstem to the cerebellum
    • Controls sensory processes
  15. Diencephalon (Hypophysis)
    • Area deep within the brain that contains the Thalamus, Hypothalamus, & Pituitary Gland
    • Responsible for directing sensory information to the cortex
  16. Brainstem
    • Connects the brain to the spinal cord
    • Assists in breathing, heart rhythm, vision, and consciousness
    • Parts of the brainstem: Pons & Medulla Oblongata
  17. Pons
    • Means bridge
    • Part of the brainstem containing nerve fiber tracts that connect the cerebellum and cerebrum with the rest of the brain
  18. Medulla oblongata
    • Part of the brainstem that connects the spinal cord with the rest of the brain
    • Controls respiration and heartbeat
  19. Meninges
    • Membranous covering of the Brain & Spinal cord
    • Layers of the Meninges: Dura Mater, Arachnoid, & Pia Mater
  20. Dura mater
    • Strong fibrous outermost layer of the meninges
    • Contains channels that contain blood
  21. Arachnoid
    • Delicate fibrous membrane forming the middle layer of the meninges
    • Is loosely attached to the other meninges so there is a space for fluid, known as the subarachoid space
  22. Pia mater
    Thin, inner layer of the meninges that attaches directly to the brain and spinal cord
  23. Cranial nerves
    • Part of the PNS
    • The 12 pairs of nerves that emerge from the cranium
    • Carry impulses between the brain, head, and neck
    • Exception is the vagus nerve
    • Carries messages to and from the neck, chest, and abdomen
  24. Spinal nerves
    • Part of the PNS
    • The 31 pairs of nerves that emerge from the spine
    • Carry messages between the spinal cord and the chest, abdomen, and extremities
  25. Spinal and Cranial Nerves
    • Composed of nerves that assist the body in responding to outside stimuli
    • Receptors for sight, hearing, balance, smell, and touch
    • Sensory and motor nerves
  26. Sensory (Afferent) nerves
    • Carry messages toward the spinal cord and brain
    • Sense a stimuli and inform the brain
  27. Motor (Efferent) nerves
    • Travel from spinal cord and brain to muscles in the body
    • Send the response that needs to be carried out to the muscles
  28. Plexuses
    • Part of the PNS
    • Cervical, brachial, lumbosacral
  29. Peripheral nerves
    • Part of the PNS
    • Belong to autonomic nervous system
  30. Autonomic Nervous System
    • Part of the PNS
    • Carry impulses away from the central nervous system (CNS) to your glands, heart, blood vessels, and involuntary muscles in intestines, stomach, etc.
    • Sympathetic nerves
    • Parasympathetic nerves
  31. Classification of Neurologic Disorders
    • Congenital
    • Infectious (e.g. Meningitis, Encephalitis)
    • Neoplastic (tumors)
    • Degenerative, movement, and seizure
    • Traumatic
    • Vascular (stroke)
  32. Congenital-Spina Bifada
    • Neural tube defect (etiology unknown)
    • Originate during the gestational process when the spinal cord and vertebrae develop
    • Results in defects in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts
    • Prenatal diagnosis:
    • Blood test for alpha-fetoprotein
    • Imaging method
  33. Congenital-Hydrocephalus
    • Abnormal accumulation of fluid (CSF) in the brain
    • Can also occur in adults as a result of tumors and infections
    • Treatment: shunt to drain fluid
  34. Degenerative, Movement, and Seizure Disorders
    • Alzheimer's Disease
    • Amytropic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
    • Epilepsy
    • Huntington Disease
    • Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
    • Myasthenia Gravis (MG)
    • Palsy
    • Parkinson Disease
    • Tourette Syndrome
  35. Alzheimer's Disease
    • A degenerative progressive brain disease that results in the impairment of language, function, inability to calculate, and deterioration of judgment
    • Damages and kills brain cells
    • Brain has fewer cells (which leads to brain shrinkage) and fewer connections among surviving cells
    • Symptoms develop slowly over time and include dementia: memory loss & other intellectual abilities that interfere w/ daily life; accounts for 50-80% of dementia cases
    • Diagnosis: PET scan images show how Alzheimer's affects brain activity (blue & black areas in light image indicate reduced brain activity
  36. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig Disease)
    • Nerve cells that control movement of your muscles gradually die, so your muscles progressively weaken and begin to waste away
    • Symptoms:
    • Frequently begin in hands, feet, or limbs and spread to other parts of the body
    • Weakness in your leg, feet, or ankles
    • Hand weakness or clumsiness
    • As the disease advances, muscles become progressively weaker until they're paralyzed
    • Eventually affects chewing, swallowing, speaking, and breathing
    • Causes: 1 in 10 cases is inherited, remainder occur randomly
    • Difficult to diagnose as may mimic other diseases; treatment focused on slowing progression of disease and coping with symptoms
  37. Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
    • Body's immune system eats away at the protective sheath (myelin) that covers your nerves
    • Causes interference in the communication btw your brain, spinal cord, and other areas of your body
    • May result in deterioration of the nerves themselves
    • Symptoms vary depending on amt of damage and nerves involved: numbness or weakness in one or more limbs, partial or complete loss of central vision (optic neuritis), slurred speech, dizziness
    • Cause unknown (believed to be autoimmune) Leading cause of neurologic disability in persons 20 to 40 years of age
    • Marked by periods of remission and exacerbations
    • Treatment: may slow down the autoimmune process
  38. Optic neuritis
    partial or complete loss of central vision, usually in one eye often w/ pain during eye movement
  39. Bell's Palsy
    • Causes sudden weakness in facial muscles
    • Makes half of your face appear to droop
    • Smile is one-sided and your eye on that side resists closing
    • Can occur at any age
    • Exact cause is unknown
    • Believed to be due to swelling and inflammation of the nerve that controls the muscles on one side of your face
    • Is usually temporary. Symptoms usually start to improve within a few weeks, w/ complete recovery in about six months
  40. Herpes Zoster (Shingles)
    • Infectious disorder
    • Caused by the varicella zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox
    • Virus stays in the body in a dormant (inactive) state; can reactivate years later, causing shingles
    • Usually starts as a painful rash on one side of the face or body
    • Rash forms blisters that typically scab over in 7-10 days & clear up w/in 2-4 wks
    • Virus can be spread when rash is in blister phase
  41. Meningitis
    • Infectious disorder
    • Inflammation of the membranes (meninges) surrounding your brain and spinal cord
    • Causes: usually a viral infection (can be due to bacterial and fungal infections)
    • Symptoms: "hallmark" signs and symptoms of this condition include headache, fever, and stiff neck
    • Treatment: Viral meningitis may improve w/o treatment; bacterial meningitis requires prompt antibiotic treatment to improve chances of recovery
  42. Cerebral concussion
    • Traumatic disorder
    • Trauma to the head (concussion)
    • Temporary brain dysfunction after injury
    • Brief loss of consciousness
    • No evidence of structural damage
  43. Concussion
    A violent jarring or shaking that results in a disturbance of brain function
  44. Cerebral contusion
    • Type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that causes bruising of the brain tissue
    • A hematoma is heavy bleeding into or around the brain
    • Severity of a TBI can range from a mild concussion to the extremes of coma or even death
    • Causes: Most common is motor vehicle accidents followed by sports or physical activity and assaults
    • Falls are the number one cause for people over 65
    • Shaking the brain w/in the confines of the skull-shaken baby syndrome
  45. Subdural
    • Blunt Trauma
    • ie: blows to the head, falls
  46. Epidural
    ruptured artery after fracture of the skull
  47. Intracerebral
    • Bleeding into brain tissue
    • Ie: high blood pressure
  48. coma
    a state of profound unconscoiusness
  49. epilepsy
    disorder of the CNS that is usually characterized by seizure activity and some alteration of consciousness
  50. Cerebrovascular Accident (Stroke)
    • Damage to the brain caused by an interruption of blood supply to a region of the brain
    • Three types of strokes: thrombotic, embolic, and hemorrhagic
  51. Thrombotic stroke
    • Blood clot in artery leading to the brain results in occlusion (blocking) of the vessel
    • Atherosclerosis
    • Cerebral thrombosis: thrombus gradually builds, blocking artery
  52. Embolic stroke
    • Dislodged thrombus travels to cerebral arteries and blocks small blood vessels
    • Cerebral embolism: embolus obstructs artery when it lodges
  53. Hemorrhagic Stroke
    • Blood vessel breaks and bleeding occurs
    • Degeneration of cerebral blood vessels (advancing age, atherosclerosis, high bp)
  54. Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis
    • Test to look at the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord
    • Cerebrospinal fluid cushions the brain and spine from injury
    • Is normally clear
    • Measures pressure, total protein, glucose, cell count
    • Red color: bleeding
    • Increased Pressure: increased pressure within the skull
    • Increased Protein: blood, inflammatory or infectious condition
  55. Lumbar Puncture
    • Spinal needle is inserted btw 3rd and 4th lumbar vertebrae
    • Reaches cerebrospinal fluid
  56. Cerebral angiography
    X-ray imaging of arterial blood system in brain after injection of contrast material
  57. Computed Tomography (CT)
    Xray technique that generates computerized cross-sectional images of the brain and spinal cord
  58. Magnetic Resonance Techniques
    • Magnetic and radio waves create image of brain
    • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): viewing strokes, tumors, Alzheimer's
  59. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
    • Computerized radiologic technique
    • Uses radioactive glucose to image metabolic activity of cells
    • Function of brain tissue in patients with Alzheimer disease, stroke, epilepsy
  60. Doppler (Ultrasound Examination)
    • Doppler ultrasound records sound waves reflecting off moving objects, such as blood, to measure their speed and other aspects of how they flow
    • Detect occlusion in blood vessels
  61. Electroencephalography (EEG)
    • Records electrical activity of the brain
    • Demonstrates seizure activity
    • Brain tumors, injury to brain
  62. Craniectomy
    Excision of part of the cranium to access the brain
  63. Craniotomy
    Incision into the skull to access the brain
  64. Neuroplasty
    Surgical repair of the nerves
  65. Laminectomy
    • Excision of the thin plate of the vertebra to relieve pressure on the spinal cord
    • Lamina is the back part of the vertebra that covers your spinal canal
    • Most commonly performed on lower back and neck
  66. Analgesic
    Drug that relieves pain
  67. Anesthetic
    Compound that provides temporary loss of sensation
  68. Antianxiety agent (Anxiolytic)
    category of drugs used to treat anxiety w/o causing excessive sedation
  69. Anticonvulsant
    Drug that prevents or arrests seizures
  70. Antidepressant
    drug used to treat depression
  71. Anti-inflammatory
    Drug that reduces inflammation
  72. Epidural injection
    subcutaneous or intramuscular injection of an analgesic into the epidural space
  73. Neuroleptic
    class of psychotropic drugs used to treat psychosis, particularly schizophrenia
  74. Psychotropic
    drug used to treat mental illnesses
  75. sedative
    drug that quiets nervous excitement
  76. Electroencephalography (EEG) technician
    a person who is trained to set up and perform electroencephalograms
  77. neurology
    medical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of conditions involving the nervous system
  78. neurologist
    physician who specializes in neurology
  79. alges/o
    excessive sensitivity to pain
  80. cerebell/o
  81. cerebr/o
  82. comat/o
    deep sleep (coma)
  83. cortic/o
  84. crani/o
  85. dur/o
    dura mater
  86. encephal/o
  87. esthesi/o
    nervous sensation
  88. ganglion/o
  89. gli/o
    glial cells
  90. kines/o; kinesi/o
  91. lex/o
    word, phrase
  92. mening/o; meningi/o
  93. myel/o
    bone marrow, spinal cord
  94. narc/o
    numbness, stupor, sleep
  95. Neur/o
  96. phas/o
  97. pont/o
  98. Radicul/o
    Nerve root (of spinal nerves)
  99. thalam/o
  100. spondyl/o; vertebr/o
    vertebra (backbone)
  101. syncop/o
    to cut off, cut short
  102. tax/o
    order, coordination
  103. vag/o
    vagus nerve (10th cranial nerve)
  104. ventricul/o
    ventricle (of heart or brain)
  105. epi-
    on, above, upon
  106. hemi-
  107. hyper-
    above, excessive
  108. hypo-
    below, deficient
  109. para-
  110. poly-
  111. quadri-
  112. -algesia
    excessive sensitivity to pain
  113. -algia
  114. -esthesia
    feeling, nervous sensation
  115. -gram
    record, recording
  116. -kinesia, -kinesis, -kinetic
  117. -lepsy
  118. -paresis
  119. -phasia
  120. -plegia
    paralysis, palsy
  121. anencephaly
    the absence of a large part of the brain and the skull
  122. glioblastoma
    a fast-growing malignant brain tumor composed of spongioblasts; nearly always fatal
  123. Myelomeningocele
    The most common type of Spina Bifida. It is a neural tube defect in which the bones of the spine do not completely form, resulting in an incomplete spinal canal. This causes the spinal cord and meninges (the tissues covering the spinal cord) to stick out of the child's back.
  124. polyneuritis
    inflammation of several peripheral nerves simultaneously
  125. paresthesia
    a sensation of tickling, tingling, burning, pricking, or numbness of a person's skin with no apparent long-term physical effect
  126. dyskinesia
    impairment of voluntary movements resulting in fragmented or jerky motions
  127. narcolepsy
    a sleep disorder that causes excessive sleepiness and frequent daytime sleep attacks
  128. hemiparesis
    weakness on one side of the body.
Card Set:
Med Terms 11
2013-07-03 02:46:46
medical terminology nervous

Nervous System
Show Answers: