Micro test 2

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Micro test 2
2013-06-29 08:49:05

Lecture exam 2
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  1. What is ATP composed of?
    a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, & 3 phosphate groups
  2. What is the universal energy molecule throughout all living things?
  3. Bacteriophages produce ________ on agar media inoculated for confluent growth.
  4. The enzyme that unwinds the DNA double helix during replication.
    DNA helicase
  5. What are the "classification" types of viruses (morphologically)?
    • complex
    • helical
    • polyhedral
    • enveloped
  6. What can viruses never be cultivated in?
    sterile nutrient agar
  7. ATP is used to ______ chemical energy for cellular functions.
  8. A bacteria that produces an important biochemical necessary for the PCR reaction used in current biotechnology procedures.
    Thermus aquaticus
  9. The theory that explains ATP production in the mitochondria.
  10. Organic catalysts in living organisms are complex polymers that fall into the category of bio-macromolecules called?
    Complex proteins
  11. The glycolysis process in eukaryotic cells occurs in the cellular ______ and splits glucose into two molecules of ______.
    cytoplasm; pyruvic acid
  12. In eukaryotes, cellular respiration reactions (aerobic) that produce tremendous quantities of useful cellular energy occur in the ________ and produce _______ as a waste product.
    mitochondria; CO2
  13. A theory that helps describe a hydrogen ion concentration gradient to generate most cellular energy (ATP).
  14. In the procedure for comparing DNA in crime scene investigations and paternity studies, the pieces of DNA that are compared after gel electrophoresis are called _____
    DNA rflp
  15. Which bacteria produces an important biochemical necessary for the PCR reaction used in current biotechnology procedures?
    Thermus aquaticus
  16. A theory that helps describe that a hydrogen ion concentration gradient generates most cellular energy (ATP).
  17. A substance that can cause an "inheritable" change in DNA.
  18. Genetic change in bacteria that involves the transfer of naked DNA from one bacterium to another.
  19. In a typical bacterial growth curve, rapidcell division   (binary fission) occurs in what phase?
  20. What is one amazing fact that came fro the "Human Genome project"?
    Significantly fewer genes were found
  21. In a typical bacterial growth curve, the ______ phase represents the period when cell destruction exceeds cell division.
  22. When a cell is preparing to divide, in order for its daughter cells to have all its info, it must first oversee the ______ of its DNA.
  23. The Codon on mRNA that matches the Anticodon on tRNA "AGU".
  24. The RNA copy of DNA is produced by a process called ________.
  25. The site of protein synthesis is made primarily of _______.
  26. The actual assembly of amino acids into proteins at the ribosome involves all 3 kinds of RNA and the process is called _______.
  27. In RNA, the base ______ replaces the _____ of DNA.
    uracil; thymine
  28. One of the constant parts of the DNA molecule is the sugar ________ and _______.
    deoxyribose; phosphate
  29. Two examples of a helical virus.
    TMV, Ebola
  30. The "twisted" shape of a virus.
  31. Two examples of a polyhedral virus.
    adeno & polio
  32. A virus that has "many heads".
  33. An example of an envelope virus.
  34. This type ("shape") of a virus can be helical or polyhedral & has a phospholipid bilayer.
  35. An example of a complex virus.
    E. Coli
  36. These viruses have multiple types of proteins & take shapes that are not symmetrical.
    complex (bacteriophages)
  37. The basic virus particle.
  38. The protein coat surrounding the nucleic acid core of the virus.
  39. What is the capsid of a virus made of?
    individual protein subunits called capsomeres
  40. A modified piece of the host's cell membrane and can have specific spikes of protein that aid in attachment and make them sensitive to chemical actions of disinfectants.
  41. What are two examples of spikes of proteins contained in the envelope of a virus?
    H and N spikes of influenza
  42. Examples of where viruses are cultivated.
    • tissue & bacteria cultures;
    • embryonated eggs
  43. The ______ is ideal for viral multiplication and is what is used to prepare the flu vaccine.
  44. The cloudy are where bacteria grow.
  45. If you see a zone of clearing, it is called a ____ and is where ______ grow.
    plaque; viruses
  46. A physical rupture or deterioration of a cell.
  47. The indefinite persistence of bacteriophage DNA in a host without bringing about the production of virions.
  48. The growth in an artificial medium of cells derived from living tissue.
    tissue culture!
  49. The state of being inactive
  50. An infectious agent that lacks a capsid and consists of closed circular RNA molecule. They are all plant pathogens.
  51. A "proteinaceous infectious agent".
  52. A cytopathic protein associated with slow-virus spongiform encephalopathies of humans & animals.
  53. Four examples of prions.
    • scrappie (sheep)
    • Kuru (humans)
    • KJD (humans)
    • BSE (mad cow disease in cattle)
  54. Adsorption, penetration, genetic recombination of virus DNA attach to the host chromosome and lies dormant.
    lysogenic (latent) cycle
  55. Two diseases where latent virus infections are seen.
    HIV and Herpes