Neuroscience Test 3

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Neuroscience Test 3
2013-06-26 15:16:20

Blood supply, aging brain, developing brain
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  1. The Internal Carotid Artery leads to the...
  2. The External Carotid Artery leads to the...
    facial muscles, forehead, and oral, nasal, orbital cavities
  3. What arteries arise from the SUBCLAVIAN artery?
    Vertebral Arteries
  4. The VERTEBRAL ARTERIES enter the cranium through the...
    Foramen magnum
  5. The VERTEBRAL ARTERIES anastomose to become the...
    Basilar Artery
  6. The BASILAR ARTERY is located...
    on the base of the brain
  7. The BASILAR ARTERY supplies...
    the spinal cord, medulla, pons, midbrain, and cerebellum (lower structures)
  8. What is the job of the CIRCLE OF WILLIS?
    To connect the Internal Carotid and Vertebral/Basilar blood supply to the CEREBRAL ARTERIES
  9. What arteries compose to CIRCLE OF WILLIS?
    • Posterior Communicating Artery and
    • Anterior Communicating Artery
  10. How does the CIRCLE OF WILLIS act as a safety valve?
    If arteries BELOW it are obstructed, the obstruction wont pass through the circle
  11. What structure provides blood flow to the Cerebral Arteries and the Central Penetrating Arteries?
    The Circle of Willis
  12. Which artery travels up and back along the MEDIAL surface of the hemispheres?
    Anterior Cerebral Artery
  13. Which artery supplies the medial frontal lobe surfaces, limbic lobe, and medial surface fo the motor cortex (LOWER LIMBS)?
    Anterior Cerebral Artery
  14. Which artery is know as "OUR artery" or the "SLP artery"?
    The Middle Cerebral Artery
  15. Which cerebral arteries is the largest?
    Middle Cerebral Artery
  16. Which artery course through the LATERAL FISSURE and develops three major branches on the LATERAL surface of each hemisphere?
    Middle Cerebral Artery
  17. What are the 3 branches formed by the Middle Cerebral Artery?
    • -Frontal branch
    • -Temporal branch
    • -Parietal branch
  18. Which artery is a broad "FAN-LIKE" distribution of supplies to the critical speech-language-hearing areas in the frontal and temporal lobes?
    Middle Cerebral Artery
  19. How many Posterior Cerebral Arteries are there?
  20. Which artery supplies the INFERIOR surfaces of the TEMPORAL lobe and OCCIPITAL lobe?
    Posterior Cerebral Artery
  21. Which artery supplies DEEP BRAIN STRUCTURES such as the thalamus, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen, internal capsule, etc.
    Central Penetrating Arteries
  22. When does the EMBRYONIC PERIOD occur?
    Conception through week 8
  23. When does the FETAL PERIOD occur?
    week 8 through week 36
  24. What is a ZYGOTE?
    a single cell, a fertilized ovum
  25. what is a single celled, fertilized ovum?
  26. What composes a MORULA?
    16 cells
  27. When does a MORULA occur?
    4 days, post conception
  28. What is a BLASTOCYST?
    a fluid filled sphere
  29. What is a BLASTOCYST composed of?
    • Trophoblast = Placenta
    • Inner Cell Mass = Embryoblast
  30. What is TRILAMINAR?
    the 3 germ layers
  31. What are the three germ layers (named outer to inner)?
    • Ectoderm
    • Mesoderm
    • Endoderm
  32. the ECTODERM composes the...
    brain, nerves, skin
  33. the MESODERM composes the...
    muscles, bones, tendons, circulatory system
  34. the ENDODERM composes the...
    epithelial lining of digestive and respiratory systems... The INNER SKIN
  35. What does the NOTOCHORD become?
    the spinal column
  36. The NEURAL GROOVE/ TUBE becomes the...
    Central Nervous System (CNS)/ Spinal Cord
  37. The NEURAL CREST becomes the
    PNS/ Spinal and Cranial Nerves
  38. When do sulci and gyri begin to evlove on the fetal brain?
    20+ weeks
  39. At the end of the _____ trimester, all adult surface features are present
  40. How much does the brain's weight increase in the first 2 years?
  41. What shows that MYELINATION is occurring?
    the inhibition of primitive reflexes
  42. Name "SPECIFIC ACTIVITY" reflexes
    • Palmer (Grasp)
    • Babinski (Startle)
    • Rooting
    • Sucking
  43. Name "MASS ACTIVITY" refluxes
    Moro (Startle)
  44. In the older brain, where is the loss of brain tissue most obvious?
    on the surface
  45. Gryi become increasing ___ and sulci become increasingly _____
    flattened, wider
  46. What is NEUROGENESIS?
    • the process by which neurons are created;
    • most active during the prenatal development
  47. What is NEURON PRUNING?
    a process that reduces the overall number of overproduced or "weak" neurons into more efficient synaptic configurations

    WEEDING OUT weaker synapses
  48. What is APOPTOSIS?
    programmed cell death... occurs naturally
  49. what is NECROSIS?
    cell death that results from cell injury... NOT natural
  50. Is MYELIN SHEATH gained or lost as the brain ages?
  51. What are SENILE PLAQUES?
    deposits of various materials in nerve cell bodies and blood vessels

    • our ability to think and reason
    • executive function
    accumulated info and vocab

    info available for PROBLEM SOLVING
  54. What type of intelligence seems to be more affected by brain aging?

    reasoning, executive functioning
  55. What type of intelligence seems to be LESS affected by brain aging?

    skills that rely on well-practiced skills and familiar info and routine
  56. What type of tasks are more difficult for older adults?
    TIMED Tasks

    due to SLOWED PROCESSING (vs diminished intelligence)
  57. True/False

    Older adults have increasing difficultly focusing on relevant info and are more susceptible to distractions
  58. what is WORKING MEMORY?
    • retention of info that must be manipulated to perform a mental task
  59. What are the types of long term memory?
    • episodic
    • semantic
    • procedural
  60. memories based on episodes, events, and experiences are...
    EPISODIC memories
  61. memories based on content like facts, concepts, and word associations, etc
    SEMANTIC memory
  62. memory of PHYSICAL SKILLS such as swimming, bike-riding, or playing tennis
    PROCEDURAL memory
  63. True/False

    Memory tasks that require processing new info quickly are more likely to pose difficulty.