Emergency care in the Streets Ch.18 Neurologic Emergencies

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mac519
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Emergency care in the Streets Ch.18 Neurologic Emergencies
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2013-06-26 15:52:20
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Neurologic
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Neurologic Vital Vocabulary
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  1. An area in the brain or spinal cord in which cells have been attacked, typically by an infectious agent. The immune system erects a wall to prevent spread of the infection, creating a pus-filled pocket within the nervous system tissue.
    abscess
  2. Endocrine glands located on top of the kidneys that release adrenalin when stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system.
    adrenal glands
  3. Nerves that send information to the brain.
    afferent nerves
  4. Inability to connect an object with its correct name.
    agnosia
  5. A progressive organic condition in which neurons in the brain die, causing dimentia.
    Alzheimers disease
  6. ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig disease, strikes the voluntary motor neurons, causing their death. The disease is characterized by fatigue and general weakness of muscle groups; eventually the patient becomes unable to walk, eat, or speak.
    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  7. Lack of feeling within a body part.
    anesthesia
  8. Unequal pupils with a greater than 1-mm difference
    anisocoria
  9. Inability to connect an object with its proper use.
    apraxia
  10. Alteration in the ability to perform coordinated motions like walking.
    ataxia
  11. Sensations experienced before an attack occurs. Common in seizures and migraine headaches.
    aura
  12. Evaluation tool used to determine a patient's level of consciousness
    AVPU
  13. The long, slender filament projecting from a nerve cell that conducts impulses to adjacent cells.
    axon
  14. A temporary paralysis of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII), which controls the muscles on each side of the face.
    Bell palsy
  15. The slowing down of voluntary body movements. Found in Parkinson disease.
    bradykinesia
  16. The area of the brain between the spinal cord and the cerebrum, surrounded by the cerebellum. It controls functions that are necessary to sustain life, such as respiration.
    brain stem
  17. The brain and spinal cord
    central nervous system (CNS)
  18. The region of the brain essential in coordinating muscle movement.
    cerebellum
  19. A developmental condition in which damage is done to the brain. It presents during infancy as a delay in walking or crawling, and can take on a spastic form in which muscles are in a nearly constant state of contraction.
    cerebral palsy (CP)
  20. Type of seizure movement involving the contraction and relaxation of muscle groups.
    clonic activity
  21. A state in which a person does not respond to verbal or painful stimuli
    coma
  22. Sensory stimulation that can be verified by others.
    common reality
  23. A protective movement that results in blinking, moving the head posteriorly, and pupillary contraction.
    corneal reflex
  24. The two identical cells produced when a parent cell divides by mitosis.
    daughter cells
  25. Abnormal extension of the arms with rotation of the wrists along with toe pointing. This indicates brainstem damage.
    decerebrate posturing
  26. Abnormal flexion of the arms toward the chest with the toes pointed. It indicates lower cerebral damage.
    decorticate posturing
  27. Movement of nerves from one side of the brain to the opposite side of the body.
    decussation
  28. Thoughts, ideas, or perceived abilities that have no basis in common reality.
    delusions
  29. The slow, progressive onset of disorientation, shortened attention span, and loss of cognitive function.
    dementia
  30. The part of the brain that lies between the brainstem and the cerebrum and includes the thalamus and hypothalamus.
    diencephalon
  31. Contractions of body into bizarre positions
    dystonia
  32. Nerves that leave the brain through the peripheral nervous system and convey commands to other parts of the body.
    efferent nerves
  33. A toxin released by some bacteria when they die.
    endotoxin
  34. A toxin secreted by living cells to aid in the death and digestion of other cells.
    exotoxin
  35. Damage or loss in the ability to speak.
    expressive aphasia
  36. Walking or ambulating.
    gait
  37. Evaluation tool used to determine level of consciousness. Effective in determining patient outcomes.
    Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)
  38. Damage or loss of both the ability to speak and the ability to understand speech.
    global aphasia
  39. A rare condition that begins as a sensation of weakness and tingling in the legs, moving to the arms and thorax; the disorder can lead to paralysis within 2 weeks.
    Guillain-Barre syndrome
  40. Sensory stimulation that cannot be verified by others.
    hallucinations
  41. Weakness to one side of the body.
    hemiparesis
  42. Paralysis to one side of the body
    hemiplegia
  43. One of the two main types of stroke; occurs as a result of bleeding inside the brain.
    hemorrhagic
  44. Comprising the most inferior portion of the diencephalon, this controls many essential functions, including pulse rate, digestion, sexual development, temperature regulation, hunger, thirst, and the sleep-wake cycle.
    hypothalamus
  45. Of no known cause.
    idiopathic
  46. The number of people in a given population, such as the United States, who are newly diagnosed with a particular disease or disorder in a specified 1-year period.
    incidence
  47. A tremor that occurs when trying to accomplish a task.
    intention tremor
  48. One of the two main types of stroke, sometimes called an occlusive stroke; occurs when blood flow to a particular part of the brain is cut off by a blockage--that is, an occlusion, such as a blood clot--within an artery.
    ischemic
  49. The wave-like movement of a seizure from a point of focus to other areas of the brain.
    Jacksonian march
  50. Structures within the cerebrum and diencephalon that influence emotions, motivation, mood, and sensations of pain and pleasure.
    limbic system
  51. The inferior portion of the midbrain, which serves as a conduction pathway for ascending and descending nerve tracts.
    medulla oblongata
  52. The process by which cells from a malignant neoplasm break away from their site of origin, such as the lung, and move through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other body sites, such as the brain.
    metastasis
  53. The part of the brain responsible for helping to regulate level of consciousness.
    midbrain
  54. An autoimmune condition in which the body attacks the myelin that insulates the brain and spinal cord, causing scarring.
    multiple sclerosis (MS)
  55. A change in the sequence of cell's DNA that damages the cell's structure or impedes its ability to function.
    mutation
  56. A condition in which the body generates antibodies against its own acetylcholine receptors, causing muscle weakness, often in the face.
    myasthenia gravis
  57. An insulating sheath that envelops certain types of neurons, allowing the cells to transmit electricity along their axons without dissipation of the signal as it moves through surrounding fluids and tissues.
    myelin
  58. Jerking motions of the body.
    myoclonus
  59. A tumor
    neoplasm
  60. A chemical produced by the body that stimulates electrical reactions in adjacent neurons.
    neurotransmitter
  61. The rhythmic shaking of the eyes.
    nystagmus
  62. Sensation of tingling, numbness, or "pins and needles" in a body part.
    paresthesia
  63. A neurologic condition in which the portion of the brain responsible for production of dopamine has been damaged or overused, resulting in tremors.
    Parkinson disease
  64. The part of the nervous system that consists of 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves. These nerves may be sensory, motor, or connecting nerves.
    peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  65. A group of conditions in which the nerves that exit the spinal cord are damaged, distorting signals to or from the brain. One type of this is caused by diabetes; peripheral nerves are damaged as the blood glucose level rises, resulting in lack of sensation, numbness, burning, pain, paresthesia, and muscle weakness.
    peripheral neuropathy
  66. The gland that secretes hormones that regulate the function of many other glands in the body; also called the hypophysis.
    pituitary gland
  67. A viral infection that attacks and destroys nerve axons, especially motor axons. The disease can cause weakness, paralysis, and respiratory arrest.  Because an effective vaccine has been developed, the incidence of the disease is now rare.
    poliomyelitis
  68. The portion of the brainstem that lies below the midbrain and contains nerve fibers that affect sleep and respiration.
    pons
  69. The period of time after a seizure in which the brain is reorganizing activity.
    postictal
  70. The death of nerve fibers as a late consequence of polio; the syndrome is characterized by swallowing difficulties, weakness, fatigue, and breathing problems.
    postpolio syndrome
  71. A tremor that occurs as the person holds a body part still.
    postural tremor
  72. Abnormal body positioning that indicates damage to the brain.
    posturing
  73. The total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease.
    prevalence
  74. The early signs and symptoms that occur before a disease or condition fully appears, eg, dizziness before fainting.
    prodromal/prodrome
  75. Turning of the lower arms in a palm downward manner.
    pronation
  76. Breaking with common reality and existing mainly within an internal world.
    psychosis
  77. Prolapse of a body part; often refers to drooping of the eyelid.
    ptosis
  78. Damage to or loss of the ability to understand speech
    receptive aphasia
  79. A tremor that occurs when the body part is not in motion.
    rest tremor
  80. Stiffness or hardness (in motion). Found in patients with Parkinson disease.
    rigidity
  81. A development anomaly in which a portion of the spinal cord or meninges protrudes outside the spinal column or even outside the body, usually in the area of the lumbar spine (the lower third of the spine).
    spina bifida
  82. A condition in which seizures recur every few minutes, or in which seizure activity lasts more than 30 minutes.
    status elipepticus
  83. A small notch located on the frontal bone near the inner, upper area of each orbit.
    supraorbital foramen
  84. Gaps between nerve cells, across which nervous stimuli are transmitted.
    synapses
  85. A fainting spell or transient loss of consciousness.
    syncope
  86. A type of seizure movement involving the constant contraction and trembling of muscle groups.
    tonic activity
  87. A disorder in which brain cells temporarily stop working because of insufficient oxygen, causing stroke-like symptoms that resolve completely within 24 hours of onset.
    transient ischemic attack (TIA)
  88. Fine involuntary, rhythmic movements, usually involving the hands or head.
    tremors
  89. The involuntary contraction of the mouth resulting in clenched teeth. Occurs during seizures and head injuries.
    trismus
  90. Severe renal failure resulting in the buildup of waste products within the blood. Eventually brain functions will be impaired.
    uremia

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