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the study or art of correct reasoning.
analyzing arguments "in the wild"
what is critical thinking?
screening your ideas to see if they make sense. or thinking precisely about thinking. meta thinking.
A Claim has what properties?
- It is a simple declarative sentance.
- simple means: not compound, no 'ands' or 'buts'
Arguments consist only of:
All arguments must contain at least ___ premise, There is no limit, and only ___ conclusion.
What are some facts about matters of opinion?
- Claims are subjective: (not subject to meaningful dispute if the speaker thinks it is true.)
- both subjects can be correct.
What are some facts about matters of fact?
- Must be true or false accross the board. Can be false for eveyone.
- Claims are objective: (does not owe its truth or falsity to someones thinking it is true or false.)
- when two people disagree, at least one person is wrong, but both could be wrong.
- even if a fact is wrong it is still a matter of fact.
How do you turn a matter of opinion to a matter of fact?
By attaching "most people", or "most people think" to the front of the claim.
What is an argument?
reason or set of reasons for thinking some claim is true.
What are characteristics of a Non-argument?
- - single claim. will fail therefore test.
- - string of claim. will fail the therefore test.
Characteristics of Explanations:
- will always pass the therefore test, and often contains indicator words.
- has explanandum
- has explanans
What are characteristics of an argument?
- Premise & conclusion
- Non-conditional claim (More than one single claim)
- conclusion is in question
How do you tell the difference between an argument & explanation?
- an argument has something in question.
- An explanation is just a statement.
test to determine difference between argument & explanation:
is there something in dispute? if yes, argument.
What is an explanandum?
What is to be explained, is never in question. (not conclustion)
What is an explanans?
How do you find the main issue?
Turn the conclusion into the question.
Ways to go wrong while finding the main issue:
- 1. identify the premise as conclusion.
- 2. Identify a tweaked version of the conclusion as the main issue.
- 3. failing to unsupress a suppressed conclusion. (but it will be so obvious they imply a third claim.)
In a good deductive argument the conclusion is:
- forced. No other conclusion could follow.
- The conclusion follows with strict necessity.
Determine the arguments p1: If it rains, then you will get wet, p2: It rained. C: You got wet.
Valid argument: if you assume the premise to be true the conclusion follows a strict necessity.
An argument is unsound because the premise is:
false. actually false!
Determine the arguments ex. p1 If it rains, you will get wet. p2: You got wet. C: It rained.
Conclusion not forced. Could have gotten wet another way. Invalid argument.
In a inductive argument the conclusion follows with only some degree of:
Inductive arguments are not:
valid or invalid.
Deductive argument analysis: If one assumes the premise to be true, does the conclusion follow a strict necessity? If no, it's ____________ . If yes, then the argument is _______ & ask if the ______________
- premise is true.
- If premise false, bad argument (unsound), if premise is true; argument is sound, a good argument.
Are All unsound arguments are invalid?
No. Some are valid
A good argument just has to be:
Do All invalid arguments have a false premise?
What are three types of claims?
A conditional claim is a ______________ A conditional claim is always one single claim.