Intro to Rad Test 1

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melissauri
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225144
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Intro to Rad Test 1
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2013-06-26 20:56:51
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  1. chief complaint
    primary medical problem as defined by the patient' important because it focuses the clinical history toward the single most important issue.
  2. chronology
    time element of the history, usually including the onset, duration, frequency, and course of the symtoms
  3. clinical history
    information available regarding a patient's condition' traditionally comprises data on localization, quality, quantity, chronology, setting, aggravating or alleviating factors, and associated manifestations
  4. leading questions
    undesirable method of questioning that provides information that may direct answers toward a suggested symptom or complaint
  5. localization
    determination of a precise area, usually through gentle palpation or careful wording of questions
  6. objective
    perceptible to the external senses
  7. quality
    description of the character of the symptoms-for example, the color, quantity, and consistency of blood or other body substances' size or number of lumps or lesions' frequency of urination or coughing' or character of pain
  8. subjective
    pertaining to or perceived only by the affected individual' not perceptible to the senses
  9. apnea
    cessation of spontaneous ventilation
  10. arrhythmia
    irregularity of cardiac actions associated with physiologic or pathologic interruption of the neuroconductive tissues of the heart
  11. atelectasis
    absence of gas from part or the whole of the lungs as a result of failure of expansion or reabsorption of gas from the alveoly
  12. auscultation
    listening to sounds of the body, typically through the use of a stethoscope
  13. body temperature
    measurement of the degree of heat of the deep tissues of the human body
  14. bradycardia
    slowness of the heartbeat as evidenced by slowing of the pulse rate to less than 60 beats per minute
  15. bradypnea
    abnormal slowness of breathing
  16. cardiac output
    amount of blood ejected from the ventricles each minute' calculated as the product of stroke volume times heart rate
  17. diaphoresis
    profuse sweating
  18. dyspnea
    difficult or labored breathing
  19. febrile
    pertaining to or characterized by fever
  20. fibrillation
    quivering contraction of cardiac muscle fibers
  21. homeostasis
    constancy in the internal environment of the body, naturally maintained by adaptive responses that promote healthy survival
  22. hypoxemia
    decreased oxygen tension (concentration) in the blood
  23. hypoxia
    the reduction of oxygen supply to the tissue
  24. intubation
    insertion of a tubular device into a canal, hollow organ, or cavity
  25. orthopnea
    difficulty breathing except when sitting up or standing erect
  26. pleural effusion
    increased amounts of fluid within the pleura cavity, usually the result of inflammation
  27. pneumothorax
    presence of air or gas in the pleural cavity
  28. pulse oximeter
    photoelectric device used for determining the oxygen saturation of the blood
  29. sphygmomanometer
    instrument for measuring blood pressure
  30. tachycardia
    rapidity of the heart action, usually defined as a heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute
  31. tachypnea
    abnormal rapidity of breathing
  32. tidal volume
    the volume of air inhaled and exhaled during one respiratory cycle
  33. ventilation
    mechanical movement of air into and out of the lungs
  34. aura
    subjective sensation or motor phenomenon that precedes and marks the onset of a paroxysmal attack, such as an epileptic attack
  35. automatic external defibrillators (AEDs)
    devices used for application of external electrical shock to restore normal cardiac rhythm and rate
  36. cardiac arrest
    sudden stoppage of cardiac output and effective circulation
  37. cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
    artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for cardiac arrest or apparent sudden death resulting from electric shock, drowning, respiratory arrest, and other causes.
  38. cerebrovascular accident (stroke or brain attack)
    condition with sudden onset caused by acute vascular lesions of the brain' it is often followed by permanent neurologic damage
  39. epistaxis
    nosebleed; hemorrhage from the nose
  40. hemorrahage
    escape of blood from the vessels; bleeding
  41. hyperglycemia
    abnormally increased concentration of glucose in the blood

    hypoglycemia: opposite
  42. lethargy
    abnormal drowsiness of stupor' a condition of indifference
  43. pallor
    paleness' absence of skin coloration
  44. shock
    condition of profound hemodynamic and metabolic disturbance characterized by failure of the circulatory system to maintain adequate perfusion of vital organs
  45. syncope
    temporary suspension of consciousness as a result of generalized cerebral ischemia' faint or swoon
  46. urticaria
    vascular reaction, usually transient , involving the upper dermis, representing localized edema caused by dilatation and increased permeability of the capillaries and marked by the development of wheals' as so called hives
  47. ventricular fibrillation
    disorganized cardiac rhythm
  48. vertigo
    illusion of movement; sensation as if the external world were revolving around the patient or as if the patient were revolving in space
  49. wound dehiscence
    separation of the layers of a surgical wound; may be partial, or superficial only, or complete, with disruption of all layers
  50. asepsis
    freedom from infection
  51. blood-borne pathogens
    disease-causing microorganisms that may be present in human blood
  52. chemotherapy
    treatment of disease by chemical agents
  53. cyst
    stage in the life cycle of certain parasites during which they are enclosed in a protective wall
  54. dimorphic
    occurring in two distinct forms
  55. flora
    microbial community found on or in a healthy person
  56. fomite
    object, such as a book, wooden object, or article of clothing, that is not in itself harmful but is able to harbor pathogenic microorganisms and thus may serve as an agent of transmission of an infection
  57. fungi
    general term used to denote a group of eukaryotic protists-including mushrooms, yeasts, rusts, molds, and smuts-that are characterized by the absence of chrolophyll and by the presence of a rigid cell wall
  58. host
    animal or plant that harbors or nourishes another organism
  59. iatrogenic
    resulting from the activities of physicians
  60. immunity
    security against a particular disease
  61. infection
    invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues that may be clinically innapparent or may result in local cellular injury as a result of competitive metabolism, toxins, intracellular replication, or antigen-antibody response.
  62. medical asepsis
    reduction in numbers of infectious agents, which , in turn decreases the probability of infection but does not necessarily reduce it to zero
  63. microorganisms
    microscopic organisms those of medical interest include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa
  64. nosocomial
    pertaining to or originating int he hospital; said of an infection not present or incubating before admittance to the hospital but generally developing 72 hours after admittance
  65. pathogens
    disease-producing microorganisms
  66. reservoir
    alternate or passive host or carrier that harbors pathogenic organisms, without injury to itself, and serves as a source from which other individuals can be infected
  67. standard precautions
    precautions to prevent the transmission of disease by body fluids and substances
  68. sterilization
    complete destruction or elimination of all living microorganims, accomplished by physical methods (dry or moist heat), chemical agents (ehylene oxide, formaldehyde, alcohol), radiation (ultraviolet, cathode), or mechanical methods (filtration)
  69. surgical asepsis
    procedure used to prevent contamination by microbes and endospores before, during, or after surgery using sterile technique
  70. vector
    carrier, especially an animal (usually and arthropod), that transfers an infective agent from one host to another
  71. virion
    complete viral particle found extracellularly and capable of surviving in crystalline form and infecting a living cell' comprises the nucleiod (genetic material) and the capsid; also called viral particle
  72. viruses
    any of a group of minute infectious agents not resolved in the light microscope, with certain exceptions (e.g., poxvirus), and characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and by the ability to replicate only within living host cells
  73. angiography
    radiographic procedure used to visualize blood vessels after the introduction of contrast material; used as a diagnostic aid in conditions such as cerebrovascular attacks (strokes) and myocardial infarctions
  74. arthrography
    examination of a joint using x rays after the injection of opaque contrast material
  75. aseptic
    describes a product or method that is free of microbiological organisms
  76. atelectasis
    a medical condition in which the lungs are not fully inflated
  77. auscultation
    technical term for listening to the internal sounds of the body, usually using a stethoscope
  78. c-arm
    x-ray image intensifier (XRII), sometimes referred to as a fluoroscope in medical settings; a highly complex piece of equipment that uses x-rays and produces a live image feed that is displayed on a television screen
  79. central venous pressure (CVP)
    the pressure of blood in the thoracic vena cava, near the right atrium of the heart' reflects the amount of blood returning to the heart and the ability of the heart to pump the blood into the arterial system.
  80. Foley catheter
    indwelling catheter retained in the bladder by a balloon inflated with air or fluid
  81. Isolette
    used as an incubator for premature infants' provides controlled temperature and humidity and an oxygen supply
  82. lithotomy position
    a common position for surgical procedures and medical examinations involving the pelvis and lower abdomen; patient is in the dorsal decubitus position with the hips and knees flexed and the thighs abducted and externally rotated' also called dorsosacral position.
  83. lymphangiogram
    a radiographic visualization of a part of the lymphatic system' a needle or catheter is inserted into a lymphatic channel in either the foot or arm, and a contrast medium is injected into the body.
  84. myelography
    an x-ray examination of the spinal canal' a contrast agent is injected through a needle into the space around the spinal cord to display the spinal cord, spinal canal, and nerve roots on an x-ray; purpose of a myelogram is to evaluate the spinal cord and/or nerve roots for suspected compressionf
  85. pneumothorax
    accumulation of air or gas in the pleural space, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathologic process or which may be introduced deliberately
  86. purulent
    consisting of or containing pus. The term purulent is often used with regard to drainage
  87. serous
    resembling serum, having a thin watery constitution' various bodily fluids that are typically pale yellow and transparent, and of a benign nature, that fill the inside of body cavities.
  88. sterile
    aseptic; free of living microorganims
  89. subungual
    beneath a fingernail or toenail
  90. tracheostomy
    surgical creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck' also used to refer to the creation of an opening in the anterior trachea for insertion of a tube to relive upper-airway obstruction and to facilitate ventilation
  91. Trendelenburg Position
    position in which the patient is supine on the table or bed, the head of which is tilted downward 30 to 40 degrees, with the feet higher than the head' also, supine position with the patient inclined at an angle of 45 degrees so that the pelvis is higher than the head
  92. urinary meatus
    external urethral orifice; the opening of the urethra on the body surface through which urine is discharged
  93. voiding cystourethrogram
    radiographic procedure obtained by the use of fluoroscopy and a contrast agent introduced through a catheter in the badder' radiographic images are obtained before, during, and after voiding of the badder, urethra, and kidneys.
  94. barium
    bulky, fine white powder, without odor or taste and free from grittiness' used as a contrast medium in radiography of the digestive tract
  95. bedpan
    vessel for receiving the urinary and fecal discharges of a patient unable to leave his or her bed
  96. colostomy
    surgical creation of an opening between the colon and the surface of the body' also used to refer to the opening, or stoma, so created
  97. Emesis basin
    kidney-shaped vessels for the collection of vomitus
  98. enema
    a liquid injected or to be injected into the rectum
  99. enterostomal therapist
    health professional (usually a nurse) with special training and certification in the care of ostomies and related concerns
  100. Fowler's Position
    position in which the patient's head is raised 18 or 20 inches above the flat position' the knees are also raised
  101. Low-Residue Diet
    diet that gives the least possible fecal residue, such as gelatin, sucrose, dextrose, broth, and rice.
  102. Nasogastric (NG) Tubes
    tubes of soft rubber or plastic inserted through a nostril and into the stomach' for instilling liquid foods or other substances or for withdrawing gastric contents
  103. Ostomate
    one who has undergone enterostomy or ureterostomy
  104. Perineum
    region between the thighs, bound in the male by the scrotum and in the female by the vulva and anus
  105. Sims Position
    position in which the patient lies on the left side with the right knee and thigh flexed and the left arm parallel along the back.
  106. Stoma
    opening established in the abdominal wall by colostomy, ileostomy, and so forth
  107. urinal
    vessels or other receptacle for urine
  108. viscosity
    physical property of liquids that determines the internal resistance to shear forces

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