Geography exam

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Geography exam
2013-06-26 21:57:03

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  1. Fluvial
    Denotesrunning water; derived from Latin word for river.
  2. Floodplains
    Flat, low-lying ground adjacent to a stream channel built by successive floods as sediment is deposited as alluvium
  3. Oxbow lake
    : Lake formed when two adjacent meanders link up and one of the bends in the channel, shaped like a bow, is cut off.
  4. Drainage patterns
    • Dendridic
    • Radial
    • Rectangular
  5. Dendridic
    Tree-limblike stream pattern that is the most commonly observed; indicates surface ofrelatively uniform hardness or one of flat-lying sedimentary rocks.
  6. Radial
    Stream patterns that emanates outward in many directions from a central mountain.
  7. Rectangular
    Stream pattern dominated by right-angle contacts between rivers and tributaries, but not as pronounced as trellis drainage.
  8. Isostasy
    the condition of vertical equilibrium between the floating landmasses and the aethenosphere beneath them.  This situation of sustained adjustment is maintained despite the forces that constantly operate to change the landmasses.
  9. Base level
    Elevation level below which a stream cannot erode its bed.
  10. Distributaries
    Several channels into which a river subdivides when it reaches its delta; caused by the clogging of the river mouth by deposition of fine-grained sediment as the stream reaches base level and water velocity declines markedly.
  11. Laurentideice sheet
    Huge Late Cenozoic continental glacier that covered all of Canada east of the Rocky Mountains and expanded repeatedly to bury northern U.S areas as far south as the Ohio and Missouri Valleys.
  12. Drumlin
    Smooth elliptical mound created when an ice sheet overrides and reshapes preexisting glacial till.  The long axis lies parallel to the direction of ice movement.
  13. Eskers
    Glacial outwash landform that appears as a long thin, ribbon like ridge in the landscape because it was formed by the clogging of a river course within the glacier, the debris from which remains after the ice melts.
  14. Kettles
    Steep-sided depression formed in glacial till that is the result of the melting of a buried block of ice.
  15. Morains
    Ridge or mound of glacial debris deposited during the melting phase of a glacier.
  16. Outwashplains
    Plain formed ahead of a receding ice sheet by the removal of material carried in the glacier by melt-water; exhibits both erosional and depositional features.
  17. Cirque
    Amphitheater-like basin, high up on a mountain, that is the source area of a mountain glacier.
  18. Arete
    Knife-like, jagged ridge that separates two adjacent glaciers or glacial valleys.
  19. Truncated spur
    Spurs of hillsides that have been cut off by a glacier, thereby straightening the glacial eroded valley.
  20. Fjord
    Narrow, steep-sided, elongated estuary formed from a glacial trough inundated by seawater.
  21. Mollisol
    Found in the world’s semiarid climate zones; characterized by a thick, dark surface layer and high alkaline content.
  22. Oxisols
    Found in tropical areas with high rainfall; heavily leached and usually characterized by pronounced oxic horizon, red or orange in color.
  23. Deltas
    Often major sedimentary deposit surrounding and extending beyond the mouth of  a river where it empties into the sea or a lake; frequently assumes a triangular configuration, hence its naming after the Greek letter of that shape.
  24. Glaciations
    Period of global cooling during which continental ice sheets and mountain glaciers expand.
  25. Yazoos
    A tributary that parallels the main channel for a considerable distance. Joining of these streams is normally blocked by a natural levee along the larger stream.
  26. Sketch of soil profile
    • Oi – bed of leaves and twigs
    • Oa – decomposed organic material
    • A – derived from the mineral parent material below but colored dark by the organic material above
    • E – Lighter material, washed out, eluviation
    • Bt – formed by illuviation of clay particles
    • C1 – more advance weathering of soil material
    • C2 – area less weathered than C1 still consisting of some bedrock
    • R – solid rock
  27. Soil forming factors
    • Rock basics / parent material
    • biological activity
    • climate
    • gradient
    • time
    • human activity
  28. What is PH of soil?
    • Acidity to Alkalinity
    • 0 to 7 is increasing acidity, 7 to 14 is increasing alkalinity.
  29. 5 forming factors for deltas
    • Velocity
    • Stream loads  
    • Depth of ocean
    • Tides               
    • Ocean currents
  30. 3 types of deltas
    • Acurate – Nile - slow flow              
    • Birds foot – Mississippi - fast flow               
    • Cuspate – Ebro - fast flow