ClinMed:The Cardiovascular System

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Author:
heather.dundas
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225159
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ClinMed:The Cardiovascular System
Updated:
2013-06-26 22:49:05
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vti
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vti
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  1. What are the 4 causes of Cogenital Heart Disease covered in class? SD,TOF,PRAA,PDA
    • Septal Defects
    • Tetrology of Fallot
    • Persistent Right Aortic Arch
    • Patent Ductus Arteriosis
  2. Name the septal defect: Left to right shunt, right sided failure, dogs
    Atrial
  3. Name the septal defect: Right to left shunt, cats and horses
    Ventricular
  4. Name the septal defect: common in cats, can die before 8 weeks of age
    Murmur
  5. What are the 5 causes of Tetrology of Fallot? RVH,PS,OA,VSD,M
    • Right ventricular hypertrophy
    • Pulmonary stenosis
    • Overriding aorta
    • Ventricular septal defect
    • Murmur
  6. In Tetrology of Fallot a pressure increase in right side results in R to L causing.....HCP
    • hypoxemia
    • cyanosis
    • polycythemia
  7. What are the 6 c.s. of Tetrology of Fallot? LOG,C,W,S,D,EI
    • lack of growth
    • cyanosis
    • weakness
    • syncope
    • death
    • exercise intolerance
  8. PRAA is common in:
    large breed dogs
  9. PRAA is a _ _ anomaly.
    vascular ring
  10. In PRAA the vascular arch constricts the:
    esophagus
  11. 4 c.s. of PRAA: G,R,W,P
    • GI
    • regurgitation
    • weight loss
    • pneumonia
  12. Dx PRAA:
    Barium study
  13. PDA is a shunt from _ _ to the _.
    • pulmonary artery
    • aorta
  14. What does the PDA murmur sound like?
    machinery
  15. The patent ductus arteriosis is supposed to close at:
    birth
  16. PDA is breed specific and results is _ of the lungs and _ sided heart volume overload.
    • hyperperfusion
    • left
  17. What are 4 causes of cardiac arrhythmias? EI,DOES,I,C
    • electrolyte imbalance (high K or CA)
    • disruption of electrical system
    • ischemia
    • cardiomyopathy
  18. Electrical impulse through the heart:
    • SA Node
    • AV Node
    • Bundle of His
    • Purkinje Fibers
  19. Animals are often _ with cardiac arrhythmias until they become severe.
    asymptomatic
  20. DX cardiac arrhythmias:AEUBU
    • auscultation
    • ECG
    • ultrasound
    • bloodwork
    • underlying causes
  21. Name the arrhythmia: HR inc during inspiration
    sinus arrhythmia
  22. Name the arrhythmia: athletes drugs
    sinus bradycardia
  23. Name the arrhythmia: excitement, fear, pain, exertion, drugs
    sinus tachycardia
  24. Name the auscultation: fluid, left sided heart failure, edema or infx
    crackles
  25. Name the auscultation: inflammation, narrowing
    wheezes
  26. Name the auscultation: right sided heart failure, chest effusion. fluid or mass accumulation
    muffled
  27. Murmurs are graded:I-VI
  28. What is special about grade VI?
    palpable  precordial thrill
  29. Murmurs are loudest when heard from:
    the apex of the heart
  30. What valves are on the left?
    • PAM
    • pulmonic
    • aortic
    • mitral/bicuspid
  31. What valve is on the right?
    tricuspid
  32. Murmurs are noted based on: GLPT
    • grade
    • location
    • point of maximum intensity
    • timing (systolic, diastolic, continuous)
  33. To listen to the left valves what should be done?
    listen over left intercostal spaces 3-5 times
  34. What should aslo be done while auscultating? HRPC
    • heart rate
    • rhythm
    • pulses
    • crt
  35. DX murmur: AREE
    • Auscultation
    • Radiograph
    • ECG (holter monitor)
    • Echocardiogram
  36. ECG measures what?
    electrical impulses of the heart
  37. ECG determines what?
    • HR
    • rhythm
  38. Can there be a normal ECG tracing without cardiac output or pulse?
    yes
  39. What 2 views for radiographs?
    • lateral
    • VD
  40. Tx for acute heart dz: ONF
    • Oxygen
    • Nitroglycerin paste(vasodilator)
    • Furosemide (diuretic-Lasix)
  41. Tx chronic heart dz:DFEDPASBCARTA
    • diet
    • furosemide/spironolactone
    • enalapril
    • digoxin
    • pimobendin
    • antiarrythmic drugs prn
    • sx
    • beta blockers
    • calcium channel blockers
    • ACE inhibitors
    • rest
    • thoraco/abdominocentesis
    • abx
  42. Diet concerns:TS
    • taurine in cats
    • sodium too low
  43. Enalapril is a:AV
    • ACE inhibitor
    • vasodilator
  44. Digoxin is a positive inotrope it _ HR, _ contractility, and has a _ margin of safety.
    • dec
    • inc
    • narrow
  45. Pimobendin _ contractility and is a vasodilator.
    inc
  46. Antiarrhythmic drugs work by cotrolling the NA flow. What are two examples? LP
    • lidocaine
    • procainamide
  47. 3 things done in sx: BSM
    • balloons
    • stents
    • mesh
  48. Beta blockers are the lol drugs they _ HR.
    dec
  49. Calcium channel blockers inhibit contractility and dec BP. Name 3 examples AVD
    • amlopidine
    • verapamil
    • diltiazem
  50. ACE inhibitors are vasodilators name 3: ECB
    • enalapril
    • captopril
    • benazapril
  51. Abx are given when?
    mitral endocarditis associated with dental dz
  52. ACE inhibitors result in: VDI
    • vasodilation
    • decreased water retention(blocks angiotensin II from binding to activate aldosterone)
    • in cardiac output

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