ClinMed:The Cardiovascular System
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What are the 4 causes of Cogenital Heart Disease covered in class? SD,TOF,PRAA,PDA
- Septal Defects
- Tetrology of Fallot
- Persistent Right Aortic Arch
- Patent Ductus Arteriosis
Name the septal defect: Left to right shunt, right sided failure, dogs
Name the septal defect: Right to left shunt, cats and horses
Name the septal defect: common in cats, can die before 8 weeks of age
What are the 5 causes of Tetrology of Fallot? RVH,PS,OA,VSD,M
- Right ventricular hypertrophy
- Pulmonary stenosis
- Overriding aorta
- Ventricular septal defect
In Tetrology of Fallot a pressure increase in right side results in R to L causing.....HCP
What are the 6 c.s. of Tetrology of Fallot? LOG,C,W,S,D,EI
- lack of growth
- exercise intolerance
PRAA is common in:
large breed dogs
PRAA is a _ _ anomaly.
In PRAA the vascular arch constricts the:
4 c.s. of PRAA: G,R,W,P
- weight loss
PDA is a shunt from _ _ to the _.
What does the PDA murmur sound like?
The patent ductus arteriosis is supposed to close at:
PDA is breed specific and results is _ of the lungs and _ sided heart volume overload.
What are 4 causes of cardiac arrhythmias? EI,DOES,I,C
- electrolyte imbalance (high K or CA)
- disruption of electrical system
Electrical impulse through the heart:
- SA Node
- AV Node
- Bundle of His
- Purkinje Fibers
Animals are often _ with cardiac arrhythmias until they become severe.
DX cardiac arrhythmias:AEUBU
- underlying causes
Name the arrhythmia: HR inc during inspiration
Name the arrhythmia: athletes drugs
Name the arrhythmia: excitement, fear, pain, exertion, drugs
Name the auscultation: fluid, left sided heart failure, edema or infx
Name the auscultation: inflammation, narrowing
Name the auscultation: right sided heart failure, chest effusion. fluid or mass accumulation
What is special about grade VI?
palpable precordial thrill
Murmurs are loudest when heard from:
the apex of the heart
What valves are on the left?
What valve is on the right?
Murmurs are noted based on: GLPT
- point of maximum intensity
- timing (systolic, diastolic, continuous)
To listen to the left valves what should be done?
listen over left intercostal spaces 3-5 times
What should aslo be done while auscultating? HRPC
- heart rate
DX murmur: AREE
- ECG (holter monitor)
ECG measures what?
electrical impulses of the heart
Can there be a normal ECG tracing without cardiac output or pulse?
What 2 views for radiographs?
Tx for acute heart dz: ONF
- Nitroglycerin paste(vasodilator)
- Furosemide (diuretic-Lasix)
Tx chronic heart dz:DFEDPASBCARTA
- antiarrythmic drugs prn
- beta blockers
- calcium channel blockers
- ACE inhibitors
- taurine in cats
- sodium too low
Digoxin is a positive inotrope it _ HR, _ contractility, and has a _ margin of safety.
Pimobendin _ contractility and is a vasodilator.
Antiarrhythmic drugs work by cotrolling the NA flow. What are two examples? LP
Beta blockers are the lol drugs they _ HR.
Calcium channel blockers inhibit contractility and dec BP. Name 3 examples AVD
ACE inhibitors are vasodilators name 3: ECB
Abx are given when?
mitral endocarditis associated with dental dz
ACE inhibitors result in: VDI
- decreased water retention(blocks angiotensin II from binding to activate aldosterone)
- in cardiac output
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