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Describe the optimal foraging theory (general)
- E is limited, and organisms must allocate it accordingly
- More abundant prey = larger return
- Attempt to maximize rate of E intake
- Diff prey = diff search cost, handling cost, nutritive value, energy value, and abundance
What is the formula/use to determine the different "types" of prey a predator should hunt?
- RATE OF E INTAKE FOR A SINGLE PREY TYPE
- E: Energy
- T: Time
- Ne1: Number prey type 1
- E1: Net energy gain from prey type 1
- Cs: Cost of searching for prey type 1
- H1: Time required for handling prey type 1
- RATE OF E INTAKE FOR TWO PREY TYPES
- WHICHEVER RATE OF INTAKE (E/T) IS HIGHER SHOULD BE THE PREFERRED NUMBER AND TYPE OF PREY
Describe optimal allocation by plants
- Limited E for roots, stems, leaves
- E allocations are adjusted so all resources are equally limited
- Anatomy tends to change with environment based on E availability to plant
Define behavioral ecology and sociobiology
- Behavioral ecology: study of ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior
- Interactions between organisms and the environment mediated by behavior
- Sociobiology: study of social relations.
- Driven by fitness (Reproductive contribution to next generation)
What is male and what is female? Describe hermaphrodites
- Females: produce larger, more energetically costly gametes.
- reproduction usually limited by resource access.
- Males: produce smaller, less energetically costly gametes.
- reproduction usually limited by mate access.
- Hermaphrodites: both male and female function
- simultaneous OR sequential
- self-reproduction and/or outcross reproduction
- hermaphrodite favoring conditions
- Low mobility - large environment.
- Low overlap in resource demands by M & F structures.
- Sharing of costs for M & F function.
Describe sexual selection/mate selection
- Mating success results in increased repr rate
- Evolution can be driven by sexual selection if some variations lead to higher fitness
- Intrasexual selection: same sex competes against eachother
- Intersexual selection: one sex chooses mate
Describe the guppies example
- Intersexual selection based on brightness/coloration
- Increased coloration is also less camouflage, and therefore a measure of fitness (if that guppy is still alive)
- When predation was removed the coloration increased through generations
Describe the scorpion flies example
- Male scorpion flies compete for dead arthropods
- The larger arthropod produced to female the more successful the scorpion fly was at mating
- Scorpion fly size > saliva >>> none
Describe nonrandom mating in plants
- Wild radish
- Interference competition: aggressive or inhibitory action between individuals (pollen competition)
- Hand pollinated each plant with donor mixes
- Considered # seeds sired, position seeds sired, weight seeds sired
- Results were consistent with NONRANDOM mating
- Accompanied by...
- Cooperative feeding
- Defense of the social group
- Restricted reproductive opportunities
- Cooperation usually involves exchanges of resources or other forms of assistance.
- Helpers gain inherited territory, experience, etc
Inclusive fitness and Hamilton's kin selection (w/ eq)
- By improving the survival rate of related individuals you are still promoting your own genes
- If RgB-C > 0 then help!
- Rg: genetic relatedness
- B: benefit to recipient
- C: cost to helper
Describe the Green Woodhoopoes example
- Territories defended by flocks of 2-16
- Only a single pair mates
- Strong philopatry (returning to birthplace)
- Most young birds help, and are highly related (50%)
Describe the African Lions example
- Female groups are always related, and exhibit kin selection with regards to defence and helping eachothers cubs
- Especially against infantcidal males
- Males cooperate in territory defense (single vs group odds)
- They form coalitions which may or may not be related
- Their probability of successful reproduction depends on their rank within the coalition, and its size
- More complex socially, 3 characteristics:
- 1. Individuals of more than one generation living together.
- 2. Cooperative care of young.
- 3. Division of individuals into non-reproductive and reproductive castes.
- Kin selection is the key factor for these eusocial interactions
Eusociality in ants
- Queen: reproductive individual
- Daughters: workers (gather food, make/maintain colony, care for young, care for queen) and soldiers/guards.
- Sons: drones and will be mates for any new queens that are produced.
Eusociality in naked mole rats
- Single reproductive queen
- Several reproductive males
- Male and female non-reproductive workers
- Very similar to ants
Eusociality in honeybees
- haplodiploidy: All the sisters develop from fertilized eggs, All the brothers develop from unfertilized eggs.
- Since males are haploid they produce only one type of sperm, and their daughters share 100% of their DNA
- They share 50% with their mother (~25% in common with sisters)
- Therefore sisters share 75% of DNA with eachother (50% + 25%), but only 25% with brothers. They are 100% related to father, but only 50% to mother
- father > sisters > mother > brothers
Briefly describe the 3 potential photosynthesis pathways
- 12H2O + 6CO2 -> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O
- C3: takes place in mesophyll cells
- enzyme has low CO2 affinity, so stomata should remain open
- Light-dependent rxns in thykaloids (capture of photons)
- H2O used to prove e- replacement for this sytem
- Light independent rxns use the ATP/NADPH formed to create glucose
- C4: separates C fixation and light-dependent rxns into separate cells
- CO2 is combined to form a 4C acid in mesophyll (lowering [CO2] and increasing the gradient to atm)
- 4C acid diffuses into bundle sheeth and breaks down to CO2 (increasing [CO2] and therefor increased rate of C fixation)
- Less stomata need to be open and thus water is conserved
- CAM: separates C fixation and light-dependent rxns into day/night
- At night plants open stomata and create a 4C acid from CO2
- During the day the 4C acid is broken in CO2
- EXTREMELY high rate of water conservation, low rate of photosynthesis
Describe the three types of functional response graphs to feeding rate/food availability
- Type 1: feeding rate increases linearly with prey density until leveling off at a maximum (filter-feeding)
- Little processing or search necessary
- Type 2: feeding rate increases linearly with prey density at start, then more slowly in middle, then maximum (snail-eating bird)
- Handing/search time may slightly decrease rate
- Type 3: Feeding rate increases most rapidy at intermediate densities ["s shaped"] (coyotes and rabbits)
- Searching difficult at low densities
Describe the limits of potential rate of E intake by plants
- CO2 availability, H2O availability, light intensity
- Photosynthetic rate vs photon flux density (# photons / m2s)
- Appears like Type 2 curve - linearly at low density, slow at moderate, levels off at high densities
What are the 3 distribution types for individuals
- Random: equal chance of being anywhere
- Uniform distribution of resources, neutral interactions between individuals
- Regular: uniformly spaced
- Exclusive use of ares
- Individuals avoid eachother
- Depletion of resources
- Clumped: unequal chance of being anywhere
- Mutual attractions between eachother
- Patchy resource distribution
- Desert shrubs go from Clumped -> regular with age (self thinning)
What are the three factors of "commonness"
- Geographic range of species (large vs small)
- Habitat tolerance (broad vs narrow)
- Local population size (large vs small)
- Any variation is an indication of some type of rarity (susceptibility to extinction)
Describe methods for estimating patterns of survival
- Cohort life table: ID individuals born at same time and keep records from birth (ideally until death)
- Gives most info
- most difficult
- Static life table: record age of individuals' death
- more like a snapshot at a given time
- Age distribution: calc difference in a population of individuals in each age class
- Assumes difference is due to mortality
- Assumes population is neither growing nor declining
- Assumes no immigration/emmigration
- Most likely these will be violated
Describe the three survivorship curves
- I: Few offspring that are well cared for (dall sheep, humans)
- II: Equal chance of death at any age (American robin, mud turtle)
- III: many offspring with low rate of survival (sea turtle)