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2013-06-27 09:05:40

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  1. Describe the optimal foraging theory (general)
    • E is limited, and organisms must allocate it accordingly
    • More abundant prey = larger return
    • Attempt to maximize rate of E intake
    • Diff prey = diff search cost, handling cost, nutritive value, energy value, and abundance
  2. What is the formula/use to determine the different "types" of prey a predator should hunt?
    • E: Energy
    • T: Time
    • Ne1: Number prey type 1
    • E1: Net energy gain from prey type 1
    • Cs: Cost of searching for prey type 1
    • H1: Time required for handling prey type 1
  3. Describe optimal allocation by plants
    • Limited E for roots, stems, leaves
    • E allocations are adjusted so all resources are equally limited
    • Anatomy tends to change with environment based on E availability to plant
  4. Define behavioral ecology and sociobiology
    • Behavioral ecology: study of ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior
    • Interactions between organisms and the environment mediated by behavior
    • Sociobiology: study of social relations.
    • Driven by fitness (Reproductive contribution to next generation)
  5. What is male and what is female? Describe hermaphrodites
    • Females: produce larger, more energetically costly gametes.
    • reproduction usually limited by resource access.
    • Males: produce smaller, less energetically costly gametes.
    • reproduction usually limited by mate access.
    • Hermaphrodites: both male and female function
    • simultaneous OR sequential
    • self-reproduction and/or outcross reproduction
    • hermaphrodite favoring conditions
    • Low mobility - large environment.
    • Low overlap in resource demands by M & F structures.
    • Sharing of costs for M & F function.
  6. Describe sexual selection/mate selection
    • Mating success results in increased repr rate
    • Evolution can be driven by sexual selection if some variations lead to higher fitness
    • Intrasexual selection: same sex competes against eachother
    • Intersexual selection: one sex chooses mate
  7. Describe the guppies example
    • Intersexual selection based on brightness/coloration
    • Increased coloration is also less camouflage, and therefore a measure of fitness (if that guppy is still alive)
    • When predation was removed the coloration increased through generations
  8. Describe the scorpion flies example
    • Male scorpion flies compete for dead arthropods
    • The larger arthropod produced to female the more successful the scorpion fly was at mating
    • Scorpion fly size > saliva  >>> none
  9. Describe nonrandom mating in plants
    • Wild radish
    • Interference competition: aggressive or inhibitory action between individuals (pollen competition)
    • Hand pollinated each plant with donor mixes
    • Considered # seeds sired, position seeds sired, weight seeds sired
    • Results were consistent with NONRANDOM mating
  10. Describe sociality
    • Accompanied by...
    • Cooperative feeding
    • Defense of the social group
    • Restricted reproductive opportunities
    • Cooperation usually involves exchanges of resources or other forms of assistance.
    • Helpers gain inherited territory, experience, etc
  11. Inclusive fitness and Hamilton's kin selection (w/ eq)
    • By improving the survival rate of related individuals you are still promoting your own genes
    • If RgB-C > 0 then help!
    • Rg: genetic relatedness
    • B: benefit to recipient
    • C: cost to helper
  12. Describe the Green Woodhoopoes example
    • Territories defended by flocks of 2-16
    • Only a single pair mates
    • Strong philopatry (returning to birthplace)
    • Most young birds help, and are highly related (50%)
  13. Describe the African Lions example
    • Female groups are always related, and exhibit kin selection with regards to defence and helping eachothers cubs
    • Especially against infantcidal males
    • Males cooperate in territory defense (single vs group odds)
    • They form coalitions which may or may not be related
    • Their probability of successful reproduction depends on their rank within the coalition, and its size
  14. Describe eusociality
    • More complex socially, 3 characteristics:
    • 1. Individuals of more than one generation living together.
    • 2. Cooperative care of young.
    • 3. Division of individuals into non-reproductive and reproductive castes.
    • Kin selection is the key factor for these eusocial interactions
  15. Eusociality in ants
    • Queen: reproductive individual
    • Daughters: workers (gather food, make/maintain colony, care for young, care for queen) and soldiers/guards.
    • Sons: drones and will be mates for any new queens that are produced.
  16. Eusociality in naked mole rats
    • Single reproductive queen
    • Several reproductive males
    • Male and female non-reproductive workers
    • Very similar to ants
  17. Eusociality in honeybees
    • haplodiploidy: All the sisters develop from fertilized eggs, All the brothers develop from unfertilized eggs.
    • Since males are haploid they produce only one type of sperm, and their daughters share 100% of their DNA
    • They share 50% with their mother (~25% in common with sisters)
    • Therefore sisters share 75% of DNA with eachother (50% + 25%), but only 25% with brothers.  They are 100% related to father, but only 50% to mother
    • father > sisters > mother > brothers
  18. Briefly describe the 3 potential photosynthesis pathways
    • 12H2O + 6CO2 -> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O
    • C3: takes place in mesophyll cells
    • enzyme has low CO2 affinity, so stomata should remain open
    • Light-dependent rxns in thykaloids (capture of photons)
    • H2O used to prove e- replacement for this sytem
    • Light independent rxns use the ATP/NADPH formed to create glucose
    • C4: separates C fixation and light-dependent rxns into separate cells
    • CO2 is combined to form a 4C acid in mesophyll (lowering [CO2] and increasing the gradient to atm)
    • 4C acid diffuses into bundle sheeth and breaks down to CO2 (increasing [CO2] and therefor increased rate of C fixation)
    • Less stomata need to be open and thus water is conserved
    • CAM: separates C fixation and light-dependent rxns into day/night
    • At night plants open stomata and create a 4C acid from CO2
    • During the day the 4C acid is broken in CO2
    • EXTREMELY high rate of water conservation, low rate of photosynthesis
  19. Describe the three types of functional response graphs to feeding rate/food availability
    • Type 1: feeding rate increases linearly with prey density until leveling off at a maximum (filter-feeding)
    • Little processing or search necessary
    • Type 2: feeding rate increases linearly with prey density at start, then more slowly in middle, then maximum (snail-eating bird)
    • Handing/search time may slightly decrease rate
    • Type 3: Feeding rate increases most rapidy at intermediate densities ["s shaped"] (coyotes and rabbits)
    • Searching difficult at low densities
  20. Describe the limits of potential rate of E intake by plants
    • CO2 availability, H2O availability, light intensity
    • Photosynthetic rate vs photon flux density (# photons / m2s)
    • Appears like Type 2 curve - linearly at low density, slow at moderate, levels off at high densities
  21. What are the 3 distribution types for individuals
    • Random: equal chance of being anywhere
    • Uniform distribution of resources, neutral interactions between individuals
    • Regular: uniformly spaced
    • Exclusive use of ares
    • Individuals avoid eachother
    • Depletion of resources
    • Clumped: unequal chance of being anywhere
    • Mutual attractions between eachother
    • Patchy resource distribution
    • Desert shrubs go from Clumped -> regular with age (self thinning)
  22. What are the three factors of "commonness"
    • Geographic range of species (large vs small)
    • Habitat tolerance (broad vs narrow)
    • Local population size (large vs small)
    • Any variation is an indication of some type of rarity (susceptibility to extinction)
  23. Describe methods for estimating patterns of survival
    • Cohort life table: ID individuals born at same time and keep records from birth (ideally until death)
    • Gives most info
    • most difficult
    • Static life table: record age of individuals' death
    • more like a snapshot at a given time
    • Age distribution: calc difference in a population of individuals in each age class
    • Assumes difference is due to mortality
    • Assumes population is neither growing nor declining
    • Assumes no immigration/emmigration
    • Most likely these will be violated
  24. Describe the three survivorship curves
    • I: Few offspring that are well cared for (dall sheep, humans)
    • II: Equal chance of death at any age (American robin, mud turtle)
    • III: many offspring with low rate of survival (sea turtle)